Review of Communication Research

BIOEVOLUTIONARY COMMUNICATION                                                                                                 

Title & Author

HUMANS ARE PEOPLE, TOO: NURTURING AN APPRECIATION FOR NATURE IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

Kory Floyd

Arizona State University, AZ, USA

Highlights

• Human social behavior, including communication behavior, is influenced by higher-order factors that remain largely unacknowledged in communication theory and research.

• Several communicative behaviors, including communication anxiety, conflict, emotional expression, and aggression, have strong biological ties.

• Most of the research on the biology of communication behavior is conducted outside of the communication discipline and remains unknown to communication scholars, even though the focus is on communication behavior.

• Ignorance of biology leads communication theory to be needlessly anthropocentric, offering human-specific explanations for behaviors that are not unique to humans.

• Communication research often ignores heritability and treats entities such as media and culture as though they were living organisms, when in fact they are human creations.

• Environmental influences such as enculturation, modeling, and media messages are powerful, but all environmental inf luences require biological factors to be effective.

Abstract

A growing literature illuminates the biological and evolutionary antecedents, consequences, and correlates of communication behavior. With few exceptions, however, the researc is conducted outside of the communication discipline and remains unknown within the communication field. This essay offers illustrative literature reviews for several communicative behaviors and argues that the communication discipline should embrace, rather than ignore, the bioevolutionary factors involved in human social behavior.

Content

DEFINING THE PROBLEM : LIFE BEFORE HOMO NARRANS

Who We Are

Biology in the Communication Field

COMMUNICATION AND BIOLOGY: A LOOK AT WHAT WE KNOW

Communication Apprehension/Public Speaking Anxiety

Public speaking is a stressor

Stress responses to public speaking vary individually

Affectionate Communication

Affectionate communication aids stress regulation

Affectionate behavior acts as a stress buffer

Affectionate communication accelerates recovery from elevated stress

Increasing affection provides health benefits

Conflict

Quality of marital conflict affects physiological health..

Physiological responses to marital conflict affect relationships

Social Support

Social support has health-protective effects

Social support can aid stress recovery and healing

Social support can increase physiological stress

Emotional Communication

Emotional expression induces emotional experience

Decoding impairment influences physiology

Aggression

BIOLOGY, WE IGNORE THEE AT OUR PERIL

Humans Are Animals Too

Parenting Is More Than Teaching

They Don’t Live Among Us

A WAY FORWARD

The End of Nature vs. Nurture

Using the Bio-Evolutionary Perspective

Conceptualize questions as bio-evolutionary

Craft hypothesis tests to rule out rival explanations

Consider context carefully

Collaborate when necessary

REFERENCES

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Humans Are People, Too: Nurturing an Appreciation for Nature in Communication Research

Kory Floyd

 

Keywords: Biology, Evolution, Social Behavior, Neuroscience, Immunology

 

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How to cite

Floyd, K. (2014). Humans Are People, Too: Nurturing an Appreciation for Nature in Communication Research. Review of Communication Research, 2(1), 1-29. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2014.02.01.001

Keywords

Biology, Evolution, Social Behavior, Neuroscience, Immunology

Repositories

Repositories where you can find this article:

Internet Archive (Community Texts) @ https://archive.org/details/texts

Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

Social Science Open Access Repository @ http://www.ssoar.info/en/home.html

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION                                                                                                 

Title & Author

REVIEWING AND REVISING THE INSTITUTIONAL VISION OF U.S. HIGHER EDUCATION

Robert Abelman

Cleveland State University, OH, USA

Highlights

• Institutional mission and vision statements have become ubiquitous in higher education, with strategic planning, recruitment initiatives and student support services predicated on their formulation.

• More than 80% of all colleges and universities have made major revisions in their declarations of institutional vision within the last decade.

• A widely diffused, generally accepted and readily adopted institutional vision must contain language that unifies members of the institution (Shared); is unambiguous (Clarity); generates enthusiasm (Compelling); articulates what is to be gained (Relative Advantage); is robustly expressed (Complexity); and presents outcomes that are pragmatic (Observability).

• The rhetorical flavor of institutional vision varies in accordance with institutional culture and the distinct challenges faced by these types of colleges and universities.

• Institutional size, region, or highest degree granted has little impact on the rhetorical f lavor of institutional vision.

• The language contained in vision statements and in mission statements is significantly different.

• The highest scoring institutional visions on each of the rhetorical attributes are: Tribal community colleges (Shared; Observability); Catholic immersion schools (Clear; Complex; Relative advantage); and Evangelical schools (Compelling).

• The lowest scoring institutional visions on each of the rhetorical attributes are: HBCUs (Shared); Tribal community colleges (Relative advantage); Catholic schools (Observability); Secular 4-year public schools (Clear); Evangelical schools (Complex); and “Christ-Centered” schools (Compelling).

Abstract

This article reviews the literature on the institutional vision of higher education in the United States – that is, the philosophical template through which colleges and universities define and communicate the kinds of human beings they are attempting to cultivate. Key linguistic components found to constitute a well conceived, viable, and easily diffused institutional vision are identified and significant issues, controversies and problems associated with these guiding, governing, and self-promotional mission and vision statements are examined. Particular attention is given to those types of schools recognized in the literature as the most maligned in the academic community or misrepresented in the popular press. A comparative analysis revisits the data of a subset of these investigations with the intention of generating greater insight into the institutional vision of higher education and offering a prescription for how these statements can better serve their institutions.

Content

THE VERBIAGE OF INSTITUTIONAL VISION

INSTITUTION TYPES : ISSUES , CONTROVERSIES , PROBLEMS

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

Religious Colleges and Universities

Catholic Colleges and Universities.

Catholic Immersion Schools.

Evangelical Colleges and Universities.

The Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU).

For-Profit Institutions

Community Colleges.

Tribal Community Colleges.

SUMMARY AND RESULTANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS

METHODOLOGY

Unit of Analysis

Computerized Content Analysis

Statistical Analysis

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1. Shared Mean DICTION Scores

Table 2. Clarity Mean DICTION Scores

Table 3. Compelling Mean DICTION Scores

Table 4. Complexity Mean DICTION Scores

Table 5. Relative Advantage Mean DICTION Scores

Table 6. Observability Mean DICTION Scores

CONCLUSIONS

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A. STUDIES AND SAMPLES INCLUDED IN THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

APPENDIX B. GENERAL COMPARATIVE SAMPLE INSTITUTIONS

APPENDIX C. DICTION CONSTRUCTS , FORMULAS , AND SAMPLE WORDS

APPENDIX D. INSTITUTIONAL VISION OF BARBER-SCOTIA COLLEGE

APPENDIX E. INSTITUTIONAL VISION OF LOYOLA UNIVERSIT Y OF CHICAGO

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Reviewing and Revising the Institutional Vision of U.S. Higher Education

Robert Abelman

 

Keywords: Institutional Vision; Mission Statement; Vision Statement; Organizational Communication; Strategic Planning; Institutional Rhetoric; Philosophical Template; Higher Education; Branding; Language of Institutions

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How to cite

Abelman, R. (2014). Reviewing and Revising the Institutional Vision of U.S. Higher Education. Review of Communication Research, 2(1), 30-67. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2014.02.01.002

Keywords

Institutional Vision, Mission Statement, Vision Statement, Organizational Communication, Strategic Planning, Institutional Rhetoric, Philosophical Template, Higher Education, Branding, Language of Institutions

Repositories

Repositories where you can find this article

Internet Archive (Community Texts) @ https://archive.org/details/texts

Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

Social Science Open Access Repository @ http://www.ssoar.info/en/home.html

About the Author

Robert I Abelman, Cleveland State University College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences , School of Communication, 2121 Euclid Ave. MU 212, Cleveland, OH 44115 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

http://facultyprofile.csuohio.edu/csufacultyprofile/detail.cfm?FacultyID=R_ABELMAN

MASS COMMUNICATION                                                                                                 

Title & Authors

PSYCHOLOGY OF AGENDA-SETTING EFFECTS. MAPPING THE PATHS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING.

Maxwell McCombs & Natalie J. Stroud
University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA

Highlights


• New research complements the concept of Need for Orientation as a psychological explanation for agenda-setting effects.
• Dual paths of psychological responses to media messages that result in agenda-setting effects are explicated in recent research.
• Need for Orientation and dual psychological paths are extended to attribute agenda setting.
• Need for Orientation, selective exposure, and motivated reasoning are merged in expanded theoretical perspective on agenda setting.

Abstract


The concept of Need for Orientation introduced in the early years of agenda-setting research provided a psychological explanation for why agenda-setting effects occur in terms of what individuals bring to the media experience that determines the strength of these effects. Until recently, there had been no significant additions to our knowledge about the psychology of agenda-setting effects. However, the concept of Need for Orientation is only one part of the answer to the question about why agenda setting occurs. Recent research outlines a second way to answer the why question by describing the psychological process through which these effects occur. In this review, we integrate four contemporary studies that explicate dual psychological paths that lead to agenda-setting effects at the first and second levels. We then examine how information preferences and selective exposure can be profitably included in the agenda-setting framework. Complementing these new models of information processing and varying attention to media content and presentation cues, an expanded concept of psychological relevance, motivated reasoning goals (accuracy versus directional goals), and issue publics are discussed.

Content

A PRELIMINAR Y THEORETICAL MAP

Roles of accessibility and perceived importance in media effects

Historical origins of salience in agenda setting

MAPPING THE DUALITY OF AGENDA SETTING

Experiment one: presentation effects

Experiment two: content effects

Figure 1. Process model for dual agenda setting

Figure 2. Relevance: A theoretical gestalt defined by recent research

EXPLICATING THE CONCEPT OF RELEVANCE

AGENDA CUEING AND AGENDA REASONING

THE AUDIENCE EXPERIENCE

INDIVIDUAL CHOICES OF MEDIA CONTENT

Issue-based information selection and agenda setting

Partisan-based information selection and agenda setting

NEED FOR ORIENTATION & ATTRIBUTE AGENDA SETTING

Figure 3. Need for Orientation: The “simultaneous measurement” model (Camaj, 2012)

Figure 4. A conceptual merger of Kim and Camaj

Figure 5. A comparison of Kim and Camaj’s research findings

AGENDA MELDING

CONCLUSION

Figure 6. A summary of “dual path” agenda-setting research

REFERENCES

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Psychology of Agenda-Setting Effects. Mapping the Paths of Information Processing

Maxwell McCombs & Natalie J. Stroud

 

Keywords: Agenda Setting, Attribute Agenda Setting, Public Opinion, Journalism, Motivated Reasoning, Issue Publics, Psychological Relevance, Need for Orientation, Selective Exposure

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McCombs, M., & Stroud, N. J. (2014). Psychology of Agenda-Setting Effects. Mapping the Paths of Information Processing. Review of Communication Research, 2(1), 68-93. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2014.02.01.003

Keywords

agenda setting, attribute agenda setting, public opinion, journalism, motivated reasoning, issue publics, psychological relevance, need for orientation, selective exposure

Repositories

Repositories where you can find this article:

Internet Archive (Community Texts) @ https://archive.org/details/texts

Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

Social Science Open Access Repository @ http://www.ssoar.info/en/home.html

HEALTH COMMUNICATION                                                                                                 

Title & Authors

2015 Distinguished Article Award of NCA's Communication and Social Cognition Division

THREAT, FEAR, AND PERSUASION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF QUESTIONS ABOUT FUNCTIONAL FORM

Lijiang Shen (University of Georgia, GA, USA)

James Price Dillard (Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA)

Highlights

• Provides background on the fear/threat appeals literature.

• Reviews theoretical perspectives that predict an effect for fear on persuasion.

• Illustrates differences in between- and within-person associations between fear and persuasion.

• Delineates four necessary conditions for curvilinear effects in within-person fear-persuasion data.

• Tests for curvilinearity in an existing data set and finds that it predicts persuasion.

• Shows that individual differences in fear of needles predict different fear-response curves to a threat appeal that urges recipients to obtain a flu vaccination.

• Concludes that the research literature on threat appeals has not adequately addressed the fundamental issue of functional form.

Abstract

Theories of threat appeals have been rightly concerned with the form of the relationship between fear and persuasion: Linear or curvilinear. They have not, however, clearly distinguished the question as a between- or within-persons phenomenon. In fact, the literature often treats these two perspectives as if they were interchangeable. We show that between- versus within-person questions about functional form are distinct from one another. Previous research, which is the product of between-persons designs, shows a linear relationship between fear and persuasion. Between-persons studies cannot address the question of how changes in fear over time produce persuasion. Consequently, a major piece of the fear appeals-persuasion puzzle may have been overlooked. Reanalysis of an existing data set shows curvilinearity of fear in within-persons data and demonstrates that the curve predicts persuasion. Audience segmentation reveals different curves for different groups as well as differential associations between those curves and persuasion. Overall, the argument and the empirical results suggest that a great deal less is known about fear appeals than it is currently believed.

Content

FEAR APPEALS: CONTENT AND STRUCTURE

TERMINOLOGY

PERSPECTIVES ON FEAR AND PERSUASION

The Drive Model

The Parallel Response Model

The Extended Parallel Process Model

CURRENT KNOWLEDGE: RESULTS OF THE META-ANALYSES RESEARCH DESIGNS AND THE LIMITS OF INFERENCE

Figure 1: Linear and Curvilinear Associations Between Fear and Persuasion in Between-Subjects Data

Figure 2: Hypothetical Message Effects on Fear in Within-Subjects Data

SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENT RESEARCH DESIGNS FOR THE DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FEAR

Figure 3: Results of Dillard and Anderson (2004): Vaccination message.

Figure 4: Results of Rossiter and Thornton (2004): Trike message

TESTING FOR THE EFFECT OF CURVILINEARITY IN DYNAMIC DATA

Figure 5: Results of Rossiter and Thornton (2004): Pizza message

Figure 6: Re-analysis of the Dillard and Anderson (2004) Data Using Latent Growth Curve Modeling

AN EMPIRICAL EXAMPLE

Figure 7: Latent Estimates of Change in Message-Inducing Fear Among Persons High and Low in Fear of Needles

IMPLICATIONS OF INTRA-INDIVIDUAL CURVILINEARITY

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A: DETAILS OF THE RE-ANALYSIS OF THE DILLARD AND ANDERSON (2004) DATA

Measures

Method of Analysis

Input and Model Specifications

Criteria for Model Evaluation

RESULTS

The Linear Growth Model

The Quadratic Growth Model

Table A. Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations

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Threat, Fear, and Persuasion: Review and Critique of Questions About Functional Form

Lijiang Shen & James Price Dillard

 

Keywords: drive model; parallel processing; EPPM; threat; fear; persuasion; latent growth curve modeling; health; influenza

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How to cite

Shen, L., & Dillard, J. P. (2014). Threat, Fear, and Persuasion: Review and Critique of Questions About Functional Form. Review of Communication Research, 2(1), 94-114. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2014.02.01.004

Keywords

drive model, parallel processing, EPPM, threat, fear, persuasion, latent growth curve modeling, health, influenza

Repositories

Repositories where you can find this article: Internet Archive (Community Texts) @ https://archive.org/details/texts

Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

Social Science Open Access Repository @ http://www.ssoar.info/en/home.html

About the Authors

Lijiang Shen (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of Georgia (now at Pennsylvania State University: http://cas.la.psu.edu/people/lus32)

 

James Price Dillard (Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1983) is a Liberal Arts Research Professor in the Department of Communication Arts and Sciences at Pennsylvania State University (http://cas.la.psu.edu/people/jpd16) .

 

2015 Distinguished Article Award of NCA's Communication and Social Cognition Division
NARRATIVE AND MASS COMMUNICATION                                                                                                 

Title & Author

NARRATIVE RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION: KEY PRINCIPLES AND ISSUES

Daniel G. McDonald

Ohio State University, OH, USA

Highlights

• Narrative has taken a central presence in Communication research.

• Although few communicaiton scholars make a distinction between narrative and story, narrative and story need to be defined for conceptual and analytical clarity.

• Stories provide causal linkages between events while narratives have specific structures that affect the involvement and attention that is required to develop those linkages.

• Narration simulates the social world through abstraction, simplification and compression.

• In situation models, words, actions, ideas, sounds and images are all brought together to enable us to experience a narrative for ourselves.

• It is inevitable that we will adopt the perspective of characters so that we can understand a narrative.

• However, we maintain our attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, and knowledge of the world that we have experienced. We don’t become the character, but the character is us.

• Perspective taking is inf luenced by the nature and type of character goals and motivations, as well as our knowledge of real-world (physical) constraints on the narrative action, and even some physical aspects of the audience member.

Abstract

A great deal of recent research on communication has been developed in the general area of narrative or narrative effects. The majority of this work has brought in older communication concepts without reconciling those concepts with what has been learned about narrative in other social sciences. This review covers some of the major points from research on narrative to help expand the knowledge base and suggest directions for additional work in the field of communication.

Content

COMMUNICATION AND NARRATIVE

NARRATIVE STRUCTURE AND MEANING

ORIGINS OF NARRATIVE

Figure 1. A simple story expressed in three different narratives

SIMULATED WORLDS

SITUATION MODELS

CONTINUOUS UPDATING

PREDICTIVE SIMULATIONS

SOCIAL COMPONENTS

WHAT WE DO WITH A NARRATIVE

Embodied Situations

Cross-Modality Effects

Embodied Characters

Character Goals

IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

REFERENCES

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Narrative Research in Communication: Key Principles and Issues

Daniel G. McDonald

 

Keywords: Narrative; Persuasion; Mass Media Audiences; Mental Models; Mass Communication; Storytelling; Film Studies

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How to cite

McDonald, D. G. (2014). Narrative Research in Communication: Key Principles and Issues. Review of Communication Research, 2(1), 115-132. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2014.02.01.005

Keywords

Narrative, Persuasion, Mass Media Audiences, Mental Models

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Repositories where you can find this article

Internet Archive (Community Texts) @ https://archive.org/details/texts

Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

Social Science Open Access Repository @ http://www.ssoar.info/en/home.html

About the Author

Daniel G. McDonald is Professor of Communication at the Ohio State University. His recent work has focused on the processing of media narratives. He has published in Communication Research, the Journal of Communication, the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, and a number of other outlets. Additional information can be accessed at: http://www.comm.ohio-state.edu/component/comprofiler/userprofile/170.html

 

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