Review of Communication Research

HEALTH COMMUNICATION                                                                                                

Title & Authors

Social Norms: A Review

Adrienne Chung and Rajiv N. Rimal (The George Washington University, USA)

Highlights

• Different from laws, which are codified, social norms are unwritten codes of conduct that are socially negotiated and understood through social interaction.

• Descriptive norms refer to people’s perceptions about the prevalence of a behavior in their social midst, while injunctive norms refer to people’s understanding about what others expect them to do in a social context.

• Social norms can be explicated at the individual level, which can be thought of as perceived norms, or at the societal level, which are referred to as collective norms.

• The focus theory of normative conduct highlights the critical role played by the salience of norms at the time of action, which mirrors findings from attitude accessibility research.

• The theory of normative social behavior posits that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by a number of factors, including injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity.

• We synthesize the research on the TPB, attitude accessibility, norm accessibility, dual-processing models of cognition, and the TNSB to offer a consolidated framework that predicts when and why norms will influence behavior.

• Future research should employ more qualitative designs to acquire richer data on how social norms evolve and influence individuals and communities.

• Future research should also focus on standardizing the operationalization of norms in order to achieve a more integrative, comprehensive understanding of their effect on behavior across different contexts.

Abstract

Social norms, as a topic of inquiry, has garnered significant attention from a variety of perspectives in recent years. Because of the rapidly-growing interest in social norms from scholars in multiple disciplines, this area of scholarship is often characterized by a lack of clarity on what constitutes social norms and how key concepts are operationalized.  The objectives of this article are to (a) provide a review of the fast-expanding literature on social norms, (b) delineate similarities and differences in key operational definitions, (c) review theories that explicate how norms affect behaviors, (d) propose a revised theoretical framework that helps organize our understanding of normative influence on behavior and (e) provide suggestions for future research in this area. This review highlights the need to consider whether a behavior is enacted spontaneously or after deliberation.  If the former, whichever attitude or norm is most salient will likely have a direct effect on behavior.  If the latter, we propose that behavioral, individual, and contextual attributes will influence the extent to which norms shape behavioral intentions and subsequent behavior. Finally, this review highlights the need for more studies designed to test the causal relationship between social norms and behaviors, as well as those that study norms from a qualitative perspective.

Content

 INTRODUCTION

NORMS ACROSS DISCIPLINES

    A Clarification of the Different Types of Norms

    Table 1. Distinctions among the Various Types of Norms

FOCUS THEORY OF NORMATIVE CONDUCT

   Norm Accessibility vs. Attitude Accessibility

   The Prototype Willingness Model

   The Theory of Planned Behavior

THEORY OF NORMATIVE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

   Moderators in the TNSB and beyond

   A Revised Framework

     Figure 1. A revised framework of normative influences

     Attributes of the individual

     Contextual attributes

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

REFERENCES

COPYRIGHTS AND REPOSITORIES

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Social Norms: A Review

Adrienne Chung and Rajiv N. Rimal

 

Keywords: Social norms; descriptive norms; injunctive norms; focus theory of normative conduct; theory of normative social behavior; health behavior; health interventions.

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How to cite

Chung, A., & Rimal, R. N. (2016). Social Norms: A Review. Review of Communication Research, 4, 1-28, doi:10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2016.04.01.008

Keywords

social norms; descriptive norms; injunctive norms; focus theory of normative conduct; theory of normative social behavior; health behavior; health interventions.

Repositories

Permanent repositories where you can find this article:

 Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

 

About the Authors

Adrienne H. Chung completed her post-doctoral fellowship at the George Washington University in health communication and disease prevention. Her work focuses on mechanisms by which media messages and public health interventions can influence behavioral intentions and attitudes about stigmatized health issues (e.g., mental health) and stigmatized populations (e.g., people living with HIV).  

Rajiv N. Rimal is Professor and Chair of the Department of Prevention and Community Health at the George Washington University. His work in health behavior change focuses on the role of social norms, risk perception and self-efficacy. Most of his current work is in AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. 

Corresponding Author:

Rajiv N. Rimal, Department of Prevention & Community Health, The George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Ave, No. 300, Washington, DC 20052, USA

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION                                                                                                

Title & Authors

A long look back: An analysis of 50 years of organizational communication research (1964-2013)  

Johny T. Garner et al. (Texas Christian University, USA)

Highlights

• The authors reviewed 1,399 journal articles that addressed organizational communication.

• The most common topics in organizational communication have been supervisor-subordinate communication, diversity, and technology, corporate communication, socialization, and organizational change.

• The most common theory used in organizational communication research over the last 50 years has been media richness theory.

• About half of the empirical studies in organizational communication since 1964 have used quantitative research.

• Quantitative and qualitative research have been used with increasingly equal frequencies in recent organizational research.

• While field work is the most common means of collecting data, the percentage of studies using field work is declining.

Abstract

As a means of understanding the identity and heritage of organizational communication scholarship, we conducted a content analysis of 1,399 articles published in communication journals since 1964. Our findings demonstrate key turning points in organizational communication scholarship, trends in the development of knowledge, and areas in which this discipline can continue to grow in future endeavors.  While research has problematized power and has emphasized the constitutive nature of communication, more research is needed to explore alternative forms of organizing and to expand diversity scholarship beyond gender and nationality.  While research has grown more theoretically complex, work can still be done developing meso-level theories that highlight the role of communication in various organizing processes.  While qualitative methods have erased the dominance of quantitative methods, greater parity and an appreciation for how methods may inform each other would advance scholarly contributions.  While the number of studies conducted in organizations has grown, the percentage of studies using field work methods has declined, increasing the risk that research may miss important contextual cues.  We discuss the implications of these findings as a road map for new scholars wanting to understand what organizational communication has been and all scholars wanting to know what organizational communication can be.

Content

 A BRIEF HISTORY OF HISTORIES

Research Questions

METHODS

Unitizing the Data

Coding the Data

RESULTS

Topical Domains

Figure 1. Percentage of Studies from Five Domains

Theories

Data Collection and Analysis Methods

Sampling

Figure 2. Percentage of Data Collection Methods over Time

DISCUSSION AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR GROWTH

Topical Domains

Figure 3. Percentage of Sampling Methods over Time

Theories

Data Collection and Analysis

Sampling

LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

Table 1. Comparison of Articles Included in the Sample by Year and by Journal

Table 2. Comparison of the Top Topical Domains Used by Year

Table 3. Comparison of the Top Theories Used by Year

Table 4. Comparison of Data Collection Methods by Year

Table 5. Comparison of Analysis Methods by Year

Table 6. Comparison of Sampling Methods by Year

COPYRIGHTS AND REPOSITORIES

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A long look back: An analysis of 50 years of organizational communication research (1964-2013)

Johny T. Garner et al.

 

Keywords: Organizational Communication; Communication History.

 

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How to cite

Garner, J. T., Ragland, J. P., Leite, M., Young, J., Bergquist, G., Summers, S., . . . Ivy, T. (2016). A long look back: An analysis of 50 years of organizational communication research (1964-2013). Review of Communication Research, 4. 29-64. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2016.04.01.009

Keywords

Organizational Communication; Communication History.

Repositories

Permanent repositories where you can find this article:

 Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

 

About the Authors

Link to first author’s webpage: http://schieffercollege.tcu.edu/faculty_staff/johny-garner-ph-d/

Link to an additional webpage for the first author: http://www.drgarnerresearch.com

 

*Corresponding Author

Johny Garner

Associate Professor

Communication Studies Department

Bob Schieffer College of Communication

Texas Christian University, TX, USA

Email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

HEALTH COMMUNICATION                                                                                                

Title & Authors

Communication in Health-Related Online Social Support Groups/Communities: A Review of Research on Predictors of Participation, Applications of Social Support Theory, and Health Outcomes

Kevin B. Wright (George Mason University, USA)

Highlights

• Overview of growth and impact of online support groups/communities.

• Predictors of online support group/community participation.

• Key theoretical frameworks applied to online support groups/communities.

• Critique of online support group theory and empirical studies.

• Overview and critique of online support groups/communities and health outcomes.

• Agenda for future research.

Abstract

This article reviews literature on online support groups/communities for individuals facing health concerns. Specifically, the article focuses on predictors of online support group/community participation, major theoretical frameworks that have been applied to the study of online support groups/communities, and coping strategies and health outcomes for individuals facing health concerns. Finally, the article discusses the strengths and limitations of existing empirical studies in this area; presents a critique of the relative merits and limitations of a number of theoretical frameworks that have been applied to the study of online support groups/communities for people facing health concerns; and it provides an agenda for future communication research on health-related online support groups/communities..

Content

 GROWTH OF ONLINE SUPPORT GROUPS/COMMUNITIES

PREDICTORS OF PARTICIPATION IN ONLINE SUPPORT GROUPS/COMMUNITIES

Limited Access to Adequate Support within Traditional Social Network(s)

Health-Related Stigma

Perceived Similarity/Credibility of Online Support Providers

Convenience and Other Features of Computer-Mediated Communication

KEY THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS USED IN THE STUDY OF ONLINE

SUPPORT GROUPS/COMMUNITIES

The Buffering Effect Model

The Optimal Matching Model

Social Comparison Theory

Social Information Processing Theory/Hyperpersonal Interaction

Strength of Weak Ties Theory

OVERALL CRITIQUE OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS USED IN ONLINE

SUPPORT GROUP/COMMUNITY STUDIES

ONLINE SOCIAL SUPPORT GROUPS/COMMUNITIES, COPING, AND HEALTH

OUTCOMES

Online Social Support and Coping

Online Social Support and Health Outcomes

LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING ONLINE SUPPORT GROUP/COMMUNITY

RESEARCH/THEORY AND AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

COPYRIGHTS AND REPOSITORIES

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Communication in Health-Related Online Social Support Groups/Communities: A Review of Research on Predictors of Participation, Applications of Social Support Theory, and Health Outcomes

Kevin B. Wright

 

Keywords: Online social support groups/communities, health communication, social support theory, computer-mediated communication, coping, health outcomes.

  Filesize 339.98 KB Download 1018

 

How to cite

Wright, K. B. (2016). Communication in Health-Related Online Social Support Groups/Communities: A Review of Research on Predictors of Participation, Applications of Social Support Theory, and Health Outcomes. Review of Communication Research, 4, 65-87. doi:10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2016.04.01.010

Keywords

Online social support groups/communities, health communication, social support theory, computer-mediated communication, coping, health outcomes.

Repositories

Permanent repositories where you can find this article:

 Academia.edu @ http://independent.academia.edu/ReviewofCommunicationResearch

 

About the Author

Kevin B. Wright is Professor at the Department of Communication, 

George Mason University, Virginia, USA.

Author Biographical Information: http://communication.gmu.edu/people/kwrigh16

Email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Communication in Health-Related Online Social Support Groups/Communities: A Review of Research on Predictors of Participation, Applications of Social Support Theory, and Health Outcomes
HEALTH COMMUNICATION                                                                                                

Title & Authors

Characteristics of Narrative Interventions and Health Effects: A Review of the Content, Form, and Context of Narratives in Health-related Narrative Persuasion Research

Anneke de Graaf and José Sanders (Center for Language Studies [CLS], Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands)

Hans Hoeken (Utrecht Institute of Linguistics [UiL-OTS], Utrecht University, The Netherlands)

Highlights

• Health-related narrative persuasion studies show a wide variety of narrative materials in terms of content, form and context.

• A content characteristic that was associated to effects on intention more often is to show the healthy behavior which is promoted by the narrative.

• A promising form characteristic of print narratives is the use of a first-person perspective.

• An overtly persuasive context does not necessarily preclude narrative effects in a health context.

• The diversity of narrative characteristics and effects invites continued research on health-related narrative persuasion.

Abstract

In recent years, many studies have been conducted on persuasive effects of narratives in a health context. A striking feature of this research area is the diversity of the narratives that are used in the various studies. Narratives that convey a health message differ widely on a large number of dimensions related to the content, form and context. We expect that these characteristics are potential explanatory factors in the effectiveness of the narratives. To provide an overview of the different characteristics of narratives in health effects research and of the persuasive effects that were found, we review 153 experimental studies on health-related narrative persuasion with a focus on the narrative stimuli. The results show that: a) with regard to the content, showing the healthy behavior in a narrative (as opposed to the unhealthy behavior with negative consequences) may be associated with effects on intention. Narratives that contain high emotional content are more often shown to have effects. b) With regard to the form, for print narratives, a first-person perspective is a promising characteristic in light of effectiveness. c) With regard to the context, an overtly persuasive presentation format does not seem to inhibit narrative persuasion. And d) other characteristics, like character similarity or the presentation medium of the narrative, do not seem to be promising characteristics for producing health effects. In addition, fruitful areas for further research can be found in the familiarity of the setting and the way a health message is embedded in the narrative. Because of the diversity of narrative characteristics and effects that were found, continued research effort is warranted on which characteristics lead to effects. The present review provides an overview of the evidence for persuasive narrative characteristics so far..

Content

DEFINITION OF NARRATIVE

PREVIOUS REVIEWS

NARRATIVE CHARACTERISTICS

METHOD

Search Strategy

Selection Criteria

Review Strategy

RESULTS

Comparing Narratives to Control Conditions

Beliefs and attitudes.

Intention.

Behavior.

Comparing Different Versions of Narratives: Content

Similarity.

Framing.

Emotional outcomes.

Comparing Different Versions of Narratives: Form

Medium.

Perspective.

Message embedding.

Comparing Different Versions of Narratives: Context

CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

TABLES

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Characteristics of Narrative Interventions and Health Effects: A Review of the Content, Form, and Context of Narratives in Health-related Narrative Persuasion Research

Anneke de Graaf, José Sanders and Hans Hoeken

 

Keywords: Narrative persuasion, Health, Narrative engagement, Perspective, Framing.

  Filesize 502.03 KB Download 965

 

How to cite

de Graaf, A., Sanders, J., & Hoeken, H. (2016). Characteristics of narrative interventions and health effects: A review of the content, form, and context of narratives in health-related narrative persuasion research. Review of Communication Research, 4, 88-131. doi: 10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2016.04.01.011

Keywords

Narrative persuasion, Health, Narrative engagement, Perspective, Framing.

Repositories

Permanent repositories where you can find this article:

 Academia.edu @

 

About the Authors

Anneke de Graaf (Ph.D. Radboud University Nijmegen, 2010) is an assistant professor at the department of Communication and Information Studies of the Radboud University Nijmegen. Her research interests include narrative persuasion and the optimization of health education for low-literate target groups. 

She has published in Human Communication Research, Health Communication, Communication Research and The European Journal of Communication Research, among others. Link:  http://cls.ruhosting.nl/persuasion/anneke-de-graaf/

About Dr. José Sanders: http://organisatiegids.ru.nl/tabOnderzoek.aspx?isEngels=false&RBSID=104579&frm=organisatiegids&dohide=True

About  Prof. Dr. Hans Hoeken: http://www.uu.nl/staff/JALHoeken

 

Corresponding Author:

Anneke de Graaf

Center for Language Studies (CLS)

Radboud University Nijmegen

Erasmusplein 1

6525HT Nijmegen

The Netherlands

email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Characteristics of Narrative Interventions and Health Effects: A Review of the Content, Form, and Context of Narratives in Health-related Narrative Persuasion Research
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