communication technology
information seeking
social networking sites
interpersonal electronic surveillance
social media

How to Cite

Frampton, J. R., & Fox, J. (2020). Monitoring, Creeping, or Surveillance? A Synthesis of Online Social Information Seeking Concepts. Review of Communication Research, 9. Retrieved from https://rcommunicationr.org/?journal=RCR&page=article&op=view&path[]=75


Affordances of Internet sites and Internet-based applications make personal information about romantic partners, friends, family members, and strangers easy to obtain. People use various techniques to find information about others, capitalizing on online affordances by using search engines to find relevant websites and databases; scouring the target’s social media or social networking site presence; accessing information about the target via their links or network association with others on social media; or asking questions or crowdsourcing information through online channels. Researchers have coined an assortment of terms to describe online social information seeking behaviors, such as interpersonal electronic surveillance, social surveillance, monitoring, patient-targeted Googling, cybervetting, websleuthing, human flesh search, lateral surveillance, Facebook surveillance, and Facebook stalking. Although considerable research has examined these behaviors, there has been little effort to clarify the concepts themselves. As a result, the literature is currently full of inconsistent and overlapping conceptualizations. To synthesize these concepts for future research, this review examines 73 online social information seeking concepts extracted from 186 articles. Specifically, the concepts are reviewed in light of their scope; the information seeker or target of information seeking (e.g., romantic partners, parents, children, employees, criminals); motives for information seeking (e.g., uncertainty, threat, curiosity); and the intensity of the behavior. Recommendations are provided for future research, such as employing clear conceptualizations and incorporating affordances. Finally, we offer a decision tree that researchers can use to help select appropriate terms to use in their work moving forward.



Adam, A. (2002). Cyberstalking and internet pornography: Gender and the gaze. Ethics and Information Technology, 4, 133-143. doi: 10.1023/A:1019967504762

Afifi, W. A., & Morse, C. R. (2009). Expanding the role of emotion in the theory of motivated information management. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty, information management, and disclosure decisions: Theories and applications (pp. 87-105). New York, NY: Routledge.

Afifi, W. A., & Weiner, J. L. (2004). Toward a theory of motivated information management. Communication Theory, 14, 167-190. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00310.x

Albrechtslund, A. (2008). Online social networking as participatory surveillance. First Monday, 13(3). doi: 10.5210/fm.v13i3.2142

Alexy, E. M., Burgess, A. W., Baker, T., & Smoyak, S. A. (2005).

Perceptions of cyberstalking among college students. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 5, 279-289. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhi020

Altman, I., & Taylor, D. A. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal

relationships. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Ancu, M., & Cozma, R. (2009). MySpace politics: Uses and gratifications of befriending candidates. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53, 567-583. doi: 10.1080/08838150903333064

Andrejevic, M. (2005). The work of watching one another: Lateral surveillance, risk, and governance. Surveillance & Society, 2, 479-497. doi: 10.24908/ss.v2i4.3359

Antheunis, M. L., Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J. (2010). Getting acquainted through social network sites: Testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 100-109. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2009.07.005

Asghar, H. M. (2015). Measuring information seeking through Facebook: Scale development and initial evidence of information seeking in Facebook Scale (ISES). Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 259-270. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.005

Ashby, G. A., O’Brien, A., Bowman, D., Hooper, C., Stevens, S., & Lousada, E. (2015). Should psychiatrists ‘Google’ their patients?. BJPsych Bulletin, 39, 278-283. doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.114.047555

Ashuri, T., & Bar-Ilan, Y. (2017). Collective action recruitment in a digital age: Applying signaling theory to filtering behaviors. Communication Theory, 27, 70-91. doi: 10.1111/comt.12108

Atkin, C. K. (1972). Anticipated communication and mass media information-seeking. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 188-199. doi: 10.1086/267991

Baruh, L., & Cemalcilar, Z. (2015). Rubbernecking effect of intimate information on Twitter: When getting attention works against interpersonal attraction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 506-513. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0099

Baxter, L. A. (1988). A dialectical perspective on communication strategies in relationship development. In S. W. Duck (Ed.), A handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 257- 273). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.

Baxter, L. A., & Wilmot, W. W. (1984). Secret tests: Social strategies for acquiring information about the state of the relationship. Human Communication Research, 11, 171-201. doi:


Becker, L. B., & Doolittle, J. C. (1975). How repetition affects evaluations of and information seeking about candidates. Journalism Quarterly, 52, 611-617. doi: 10.1177/107769907505200401

Belu, C. F., Lee, B. H., & O’Sullivan, L. F. (2016). It hurts to let you go: Characteristics of romantic relationships, breakups, and the aftermath among emerging adults. Journal of Relationships Research, 7, 1-11. doi: 10.1017/jrr.2016.11

Bennett, D. C., Guran, E. L., Ramos, M. C., & Margolin, G. (2011). College students’ electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships: Anticipated distress and associations with risky behaviors. Violence and Victims, 26, 410-429. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.26.4.410

Benrazavi, R., Teimouri, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Utility of parental mediation model on youth’s problematic online gaming. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 13, 712-727. doi: 10.1007/s11469-015-9561-2

Berger, C. R. (1979). Beyond initial interaction: Uncertainty, understanding, and the development of interpersonal relationships. In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 122-144). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Berger, C. R., & Bradac, J. J. (1982). Language and social knowledge: Uncertainty in interpersonal relations. London: Edward Arnold.

Berger, C., & Calabrese, R. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward

a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1(2), 99-112. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x

Berkelaar, B. L. (2014). Cybervetting, online information, and personnel selection: New transparency expectations and the emergence of a digital social contract. Management Communication Quarterly, 28, 479-506. doi: 10.1177/0893318914541966

Berkelaar, B. L. (2017a). Different ways new information technologies influence conventional organizational practices and employment relationships: The case of cybervetting for personnel selection. Human Relations, 70, 1115-1140. doi: 10.1177/0018726716686400

Berkelaar, B. L. (2017b). How implicit theories help differentiate approaches to online impression management: A preliminary typology. New Media & Society, 19, 2039-2058. doi: 10.1177/1461444816654136

Berkelaar, B. L., Birdsell, J. L., & Scacco, J. M. (2016). Storying the digital professional: How online screening shifts the primary site and authorship of workers’ career stories. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 44, 275-295. doi: 10.1080/00909882.2016.11922 87

Berkelaar, B. L., & Buzzanell, P. M. (2014). Cybervetting, person-environment fit, and personnel selection: Employers’ surveillance and sensemaking of job applicants’ online information. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 42, 456-476. doi: 10.1080/00909882.2014.954595

Berkelaar, B. L., & Buzzanell, P. M. (2015). Online employment screening and digital career capital: Exploring employers’ use of online information for personnel selection. Management Communication Quarterly, 29, 84-113. doi: 10.1177/0893318914554657

Berkelaar, B. L., Scacco, J. M., & Birdsell, J. L. (2015). The worker as politician: How online information and electoral heuristics shape personnel selection and careers. New Media & Society, 17, 1377-1396. doi: 10.1177/1461444814525739

Bond, R. M., Settle, J. E., Fariss, C. J., Jones, J. J., & Fowler, J. H. (2017). Social endorsement cues and political participation. Political Communication, 34, 261-281. doi: 10.1080/10584609.2016.1226223

Bond, B. J., Hefner, V., & Drogos, K. L. (2009). Information-seeking practices during the sexual development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: The influence and effects of coming out in a mediated environment. Sexuality & Culture, 13, 32-50. doi: 10.1007/s12119-008-9041-y

Borrajo, E., Gámez-Guadix, M., & Calvete, E. (2015). Cyber dating abuse: Prevalence, context, and relationship with offline dating aggression. Psychological Reports: Relationships & Communications, 116, 565-585. doi: 10.2466/21.16.PR0.116k22w4

Botan, C. (1996). Communication work and electronic surveillance: A model for predicting panoptic effects. Communication Monographs, 63, 293-313. doi: 10.1080/03637759609376396

boyd, d. (2011). Social network sites as networked publics: Affordances, dynamics, and implications. In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.), A networked self: Identity, community, and culture on social network sites (pp. 39-58). New York, NY: Routledge.

Brandtzæg, P. B., Lüders, M., Skjetne, J. H. (2010). Too many Facebook “friends”? Content sharing and sociability versus the need for privacy in social network sites. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 26, 1006-1030. doi: 10.1080/10447318.2010.516719

Brashers, D. E. (2001). Communication and uncertainty management. Journal of Communication, 51, 477-497. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2001.tb02892.x

Brashers, D. E., Neidig, J. L., Haas, S. M., Dobbs, L. K., Cardillo, L. W., & Russell, J. A. (2000). Communication in the management of uncertainty: The case of persons living with HIV or AIDS. Communication Monographs, 67, 63–84. doi: 10.1080/03637750009376495

Brem, M. J., Spiller, L. C., & Vandehey, M. A. (2015). Online mate-retention tactics on Facebook are associated with relationship aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30, 2831-2850. doi: 10.1177/0886260514554286

Brem, M. J., Florimbio, A. R., Grigorian, H., Wolford-Clevenger, C., Elmquist, J., Shorey, R. C., …Stuart, G. L. (2019). Cyber abuse among men arrested for domestic violence: Cyber monitoring moderates the relationship between alcohol problems and intimate partner violence. Psychology of Violence, 9, 410-428. doi: 10.1037/vio0000130

Bryant, E. M., & Marmo, J. (2009). Relational maintenance strategies on Facebook. The Kentucky Journal of Communication, 28, 129-150. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons. trinity.edu/ cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=hct_facult

Bumgarner, B. A. (2007). You have been poked: Exploring the uses and gratifications of Facebook among emerging adults. First Monday, 12(11). Retrieved from https://firstmonday.org/article/view/2026/1897

Burke, M., Kraut, R., & Marlow, C. (2011). Social capital on Facebook: Differentiating uses and users. In CHI ’11 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 571-580). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1978942.1979023

Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2010). Social network activity and social well-being. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1909-1912). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1753326.1753613

Canary, D. J., & Stafford, L. (1992). Relational maintenance strategies and equity in marriage.

Communication Monographs, 59, 243-267. doi: 10.1080/03637759209376268

Carr, C. T., & Walther, J. B. (2014). Increasing attributional certainty via social media: Learning about others one bit at a time. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 922-937. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12072

Cavezza, C., & McEwan, T. E. (2014). Cyberstalking versus off-line stalking in a forensic sample. Psychology, Crime & Law, 20, 955-970. doi: 10.1080/1068316X.2014.893334

Chang, L. Y. C., & Poon, R. (2017). Internet vigilantism: Attitudes and experiences of university students toward cyber crowdsourcing in Hong Kong. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61, 1912-1932. doi: 10.1177/0306624X16639037

Chao, C., & Tao, Y. (2012). Human flesh search: A supplemental review. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 350-356. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0481

Chaulk, K., & Jones. T. (2011). Online obsessive relational intrusion: Further concerns about Facebook. Journal of Family Violence, 26, 245-254. doi: 10.1007/s10896-011-9360-x

Chen, R., & Sharma, S. K. (2011). Human flesh search – Facts and issues. Journal of Information Privacy and Security, 7, 50-71. doi: 10.1080/15536548.2011.10855905

Cheong, P. H., & Gong, J. (2010). Cyber vigilantism, transmedia collective intelligence, and civic participation. Chinese Journal of Communication, 3, 471-487. doi: 10.1080/ 17544750.2010.516580?

Chester, A. N., Walthert, S. E., Gallagher, S. J., Anderson, L. C., & Stitely, M. L. (2017). Patient-targeted Googling and social media: A cross-sectional study of senior medical students. BMC Medical Ethics, 18, 1-8. doi: 10.1186/s12910-017-0230-9

Chia, S. C. (2019). Seeking justice on the web: How news media and social norms drive the practice of cyber vigilantism. Social Science Computer Review. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0894439319842190

Child, J. T., & Starcher, S. C. (2016). Fuzzy Facebook privacy boundaries: Exploring mediated lurking, vague-booking, and Facebook privacy management. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 483-490. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.035

Christensen, M., & Jansson, A. (2015). Complicit surveillance, interveillance, and the question of cosmopolitanism: Toward a phenomenological understanding of mediatization. New Media & Society, 17, 1473-1491. doi: 10.1177/1461444814528678

Clarke, P. (1973). Teenagers’ coorientation and information-seeking about pop music. American Behavioral Scientist, 16, 551-566. doi: 10.1177/000276427301600406

Clinton, B. K., Silverman, B. C., & Brendel, D. H. (2010). Patient-targeted Googling: The ethics of searching online for patient information. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18, 103-112. doi: 10.3109/10673221003683861

Courtois, C., All, A., & Vanwynsberghe, H. (2012). Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents’ offline relations. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 290-295. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0557

Crane, C. A., Umehira, N., Berbary, C., & Easton, C. J. (2018). Problematic alcohol use as a risk factor for cyber aggression within romantic relationships. The American Journal on Addictions, 27, 400-406. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12736

Crowley, J. L., & High, A. C. (2018). Parents’ information seeking during adolescent career development: a test of the theory of motivated information management. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 46, 348-367. doi: 10.1080/00909882.2018.1468570

Darvell, M. J., Walsh, S. P., & White, K. M. (2011). Facebook tells me so: Applying the theory of planned behavior to understand partner-monitoring behavior on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 717-722. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0035

de Arujo, R. C., & Kowacs, C. (2019). Patient-targeted “Googling:” When therapists search for information about their patients online. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 47, 27-38. doi: 10.1521/pdps.2019.47.1.27

DeGroot, J. M. (2014). “For whom the bell tolls”: Emotional rubbernecking in Facebook memorial groups. Death Studies, 38, 79-84. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2012.725450

Derby, K., Knox, D., & Easterling, B. (2012). Snooping in romantic relationships. College Student Journal, 46, 333-343. Retrieved from http://www.projectinnovation.biz/csj.html

Dhillon, G., & Smith, K. J. (2019). Defining objectives for preventing cyberstalking. Journal of Business Ethics, 157, 137-158. doi: 10.1007/s10551-017-3697-x

Doucette, H., Collibee, C., Hood, E., Stone, D. I. G., DeJesus, B., & Rizzo, C. J. (2018). Perpetration of electronic intrusiveness among adolescent females: Associations with in-person dating violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0886260518815725

Dreßing, H., Bailer, J., Anders, A., Wagner, H., & Gallas, C. (2014). Cyberstalking in a large sample of social network users: Prevalence, characteristics, and impact upon victims. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 61-67. doi: 10.1089/cyber/2012.0231

Drouin, M., Miller, D. A., & Dibble, J. L. (2014). Ignore your partners’ current Facebook friends; beware the ones they add! Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 483-488. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.032

Duerksen, K. N., & Woodin, E. M. (2019). Technological intimate partner violence: Exploring technology-related perpetration factors and overlap with in-person intimate partner violence. Computers in Human Behavior, 98, 223-231. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.05.001

Eichenberg, C., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2016). Do therapists Google their patients? A survey among psychotherapists. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(1), 1-9. doi: 10.2196/ jmir.4306

El Ouirdi, M., El Ouirdi, A., Segers, J., & Pais, I. (2016). Technology adoption in employee recruitment: The case of social media in Central and Eastern Europe. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 240-249. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.043

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2011). Connection strategies: Social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices. New Media & Society, 13, 873-892. doi: 10.1177/1461444810385389

Fernback, J. (2013). Sousveillance: Communities of resistance to the surveillance environment. Telematics and Informatics, 30, 11-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2012.03.003

Finn, J. (2004). A survey of online harassment at a university campus. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 468–483. doi: 10.1177/0886260503262083

Fox, J., & Anderegg, C. (2014). Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: Uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 685-691. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0232

Fox, J., & McEwan, B. (2017). Distinguishing technologies for social interaction: The perceived social affordances of communication channels scale. Communication Monographs, 84, 298-318. doi: 10.1080/03637751.2017.1332418

Fox, J., & McEwan, B. (2019). Social media. In M. B. Oliver, A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 373-388). New York, NY: Routledge.

Fox, J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2015). Romantic partner monitoring after breakups: Attachment, dependence, distress, and post-dissolution online surveillance via social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 491-498. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0123

Fox, J., Warber, K. M., & Makstaller, D. C. (2013). The role of Facebook in romantic relationship development: An exploration of Knapp’s relational stage model. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30, 771-794. doi: 10.1177/0265407512468370

Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2016). Exploring the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support, and adolescents’ depressed mood. Social Science Computer Review, 34, 153-171. doi:10.1177/0894439314567449

Fuchs, C. (2011). New media, web 2.0 and surveillance. Sociology Compass, 5, 134-147. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2010.00354.x

Fuchs, C., & Trottier, D. (2015). Towards a theoretical model of social media surveillance in contemporary society. Communications, 40, 113-135. doi: 10.1515/commun-2014-0029

Fulton, J. M., & Kibby, M. D. (2017). Millennials and the normalization of surveillance on Facebook. Continuum, 31, 189-199. doi: 10.1080/10304312.2016.1265094

Gao, L. (2016). The emergence of the human flesh search engine and political protest in China: Exploring the Internet and online collective action. Media, Culture, & Society, 38, 349-364. doi: 10.1177/0163443715610493

Gao, L., & Stanyer, J. (2014). Hunting corrupt officials online: The human flesh search engine and the search for justice in China. Information, Communication, & Society, 17, 814-829. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2013.836553

Giannakos, M. N., Chorianopoulos, K., Giotopoulos, K., & Vlamos, P. (2013). Using Facebook out of habit. Behavior & Information Technology, 32, 594-602. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2012.659218

Gibbs, J. L., Ellison, N. B., & Lai, C. (2011). First comes love, then comes Google: An investigation of uncertainty reduction strategies and self-disclosure in online dating. Communication Research, 38, 70-100. doi: 10.1177/0093650210377091

Griffin, R. J., Neuwirth, K., Dunwoody, S., & Giese, J. (2004). Information sufficiency and risk communication. Media Psychology, 6, 23-61. doi: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0601_2

Guerrero, L. K., & Afifi, W. A. (1998). Communicative responses to jealousy as a function of self-esteem and relationship maintenance goals: A test of Bryson’s dual motivation model. Communication Reports, 11, 111-122. doi: 10/1080/08934219809367693

Hawk, S. T., Becht, A., & Branje, S. (2015). “Snooping” as a distinct parental monitoring strategy: Comparisons with overt solicitation and control. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26, 443-458. doi: 10.1111/jora.12204

Hedenus, A., Backman, C., & Håkansson, P. (2019). Whom do you know? Recruiters’ motives for assessing jobseekers’ online networks. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2019.1579245

Hellevik, P. M. (2019). Teenagers’ personal accounts of experiences with digital intimate partner violence and abuse. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 178-187. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.019

Helsper, E. J., & Whitty, M. T. (2010). Netiquette within married couples: Agreement about acceptable online behavior and surveillance between partners. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 916-926. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.02.006

Hogan, T. P., & Brashers, D. E. (2009). The theory of communication and uncertainty management: Implications from the wider realm of information behavior. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty, information management, and disclosure decisions: Theories and applications (pp. 45-66). New York, NY: Routledge.

Horsman, G., & Conniss, L. R. (2015). An investigation of anonymous and spoof SMS resources used for the purposes of cyberstalking. Digital Investigation, 13, 80-93. doi: 10.1016/j.diin.2015.04.001

Howard, D. E., Debnam, K. J., & Strausser, A. (2019). “I’m a stalker and proud of it”: Adolescent girls’ perceptions of the mixed utilities associated with Internet and social networking use in their dating relationships. Youth & Society, 51, 773-792. doi: 10.1177/0044118X17716948

Huber, C., & DeGroot, J. M. (2017). A grounded theory model of perceptions toward creeping and stalking behaviors. Journal of the Communication, Speech, & Theatre Association of North Dakota, 30, 32-41. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/ cstandv2/publications/journal

Humphreys, L. (2011). Who’s watching whom? A study of interactive technology and surveillance. Journal of Communication, 61, 575-595. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01570.x

Ivana, G. (2013). A postmodern panopticon: Lateral surveillance on Facebook. Global Media Journal: Mediterranean Edition, 8, 1-14.

Jansson, A. (2012). Perceptions of surveillance: Reflexivity and trust in a mediated world (the case of Sweden). European Journal of Communication, 27, 410-427. doi: 10.1177/0267323112463306

Joinson, A. N. (2008). Looking at, looking up or keeping up with people?: Motives and use of Facebook. In CHI Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1027-1036). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1357054.13572 13

Karakayali, N., & Kilic, A. (2013). More network conscious than ever? Challenges, strategies, and analytic labor of users in the Facebook environment. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18, 175-193. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12005

Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1973). Uses and gratifications research. Public

Opinion Quarterly, 37, 509-523. doi: 10.1086/2747854

Kennedy-Lightsey, C. D., & Frisby. B. N. (2016). Parental privacy invasion, family communication patterns, and perceived ownership of private information. Communication Reports, 29, 75-86. doi: 10.1080/08934215.2015.1048477

Kircaburun, K., Jonason, P. K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). The dark tetrad traits and problematic social media use: The mediating role of cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Personality and Individual Differences, 135, 264-269. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.07.034

Knapp, M. L. (1978). Social intercourse: From greeting to goodbye. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Knobloch, S., Carpentier, F. D., & Zillmann, D. (2003). Effects of salience dimensions of informational utility on selective exposure to online news. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, 91-108. doi: 10.1177/107769900308000107

Knobloch, L. K., & Solomon, D. H. (2002). Information seeking beyond initial interaction: Negotiating relational uncertainty within close relationships. Human Communication Research, 28, 243-257. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2002.tb00806.x

Krasnova, H., Widjaja, T., Buxmann, P., Wenninger, H., Benbasat I. (2015) Research note—why following friends can hurt you: An exploratory investigation of the effects of envy on social networking sites among college-age users. Information Systems Research, 26, 585-605. doi: 10.1287/isre.2015.0588

Ku, Y., Chu, T., & Tseng, C. (2013). Gratifications for using CMC technologies: A comparison among SNS, IM, and e-mail. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 226-234. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.08.009

Lai, C. (2019). Motivations, usage, and perceived social networks within and beyond social media. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 24, 126-145. doi: 10.1093/jcmc/zmz004

Lampe, C., Ellison, N., & Steinfield, C. (2006, November 8-10). A face(book) in the crowd: Social searching vs. social browsing. In Proceedings of the ACM special interest group on computer-supported cooperative work (pp. 167-170). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1180875.1180901

Law, D. M., Shapka, J. D., & Olson, B. F. (2010). To control or not to control? Parenting behaviours and adolescent online aggression. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1651-1656. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.013

Ledbetter, A. M., Heiss, S., Sibal, K., Lev, E., Battle-Fisher, M., & Shubert, N. (2010). Parental invasive and children’s defensive behaviors at home and away at college: Mediated communication and privacy boundary management. Communication Studies, 61, 184-204. doi: 10.1080/10510971003603960

Lee, B. H., & O’Sullivan, L. F. (2014). The ex-factor: Characteristics of online and offline postrelationship contact and tracking among Canadian emerging adults. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 23, 96-105. doi: 10.3138/cjhs.2415

Lee, E. W. J., Ho, S. S., & Lwin, M. O. (2017). Explicating problematic social network sites use: A review of concepts, theoretical frameworks, and future directions for communication theorizing. New Media & Society, 19, 308-326. doi: 10.1177/1461444816671891

LeFebvre, L., Blackburn, K., & Brody, N. (2015). Navigating romantic relationships on Facebook: Extending the relationship dissolution model to social networking environments. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32, 78-98. doi: 10.1177/0265407514524848

Lewis, J., & West, A. (2009). ‘Friending’: London-based undergraduates’ experience of Facebook. New Media & Society, 11, 1209-1229. doi: 10.1177/1461444809342058

Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. J. (2008). Parental mediation of children’s internet use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54, 581-599. doi: 10.1080/08838150802437396

Lopez, V. (2017). Love is a battlefield: Mexican American girls’ strategies for avoiding players. Youth & Society, 49, 23-45. doi: 10.1177/0044118X14521223

Lu, Y., Van Ouytsel, J., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., & Temple, J. R. (2018). Cross-sectional and temporal associations between cyber dating abuse victimization and mental health and substance use outcomes. Journal of Adolescence, 65, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence. 2018.02.009

Lukacs, V., & Quan-Haase, A. (2015). Romantic breakups on Facebook: New scales for studying post-breakup behaviors, digital distress, and surveillance. Information, Communication & Society, 18, 492-508. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2015.1008540

Lyndon, A., Bonds-Raacke, J., & Cratty, A. D. (2011). College students’ Facebook stalking of ex-partners. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 711-716. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2010.0588

Maguire, K. C. (2007). “Will it ever end?” A (re)examination of uncertainty in college student long-distance dating relationships. Communication Quarterly, 55, 415-432. doi: 10.1080/01463370701658002

Marcum, C. D., & Higgins, G. E. (2019). Examining the effectiveness of academic scholarship on the fight against cyberbullying and cyberstalking. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 44, 645-655. doi: 10.1007/s12103-019-09482-8

Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Nicholson, J. (2017). I’m watching you: Cyberstalking behaviors of university students in romantic relationships. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 373-388. doi: 10.1007/s12103-016-9358-2

Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Nicholson, J. (2018). Crossing boundaries online in romantic relationships: An exploratory study of the perceptions of impact on partners by cyberstalking offenders. Deviant Behavior, 39, 716-731. doi: 10.1080/01639625. 2017.1304801

Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Poff, B. A. (2016). Exploratory investigation on theoretical predictors of the electronic leash. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 213-218. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.010.

Marshall, T. C. (2012). Facebook surveillance of former romantic partners: Associations with postbreakup recovery and personal growth. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 521-526. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0125

Marshall, T. C., Bejanyan, K., Di Castro, G., & Lee, R. A. (2013). Attachment styles as predictors of Facebook?related jealousy and surveillance in romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 20, 1-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2011.01393.x

Marwick, A. (2012). The public domain: Social surveillance in everyday life. Surveillance & Society, 9, 378-393. doi: 10.24908/ss.v9i4.4342

Marx, G. T. (2004). What’s new about the “new surveillance”? Classifying for change and continuity. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 17, 18-37. doi: 10.1007/BF02687074

McEwan, B. (2013). Sharing, caring, and surveilling: An actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 863-869. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0717

Meenagh, J. (2015). Flirting, dating, and breaking up within new media environments. Sex Education, 15, 458-471. doi: 10.1080/14681811.2015.1033516

Melton, J., Miller, R., & Salmona, M. (2018). University student use of Twitter and Facebook: A study of posting in three countries. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 48, 331-358. doi: 10.1177/0047281617724402

Metzger, M. J., Wilson, C., & Zhao, B. Y. (2018). Benefits of browsing? The prevelance, nature, and effects of profile consumption behavior in social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 23, 72-89. doi: 10.1093/jcmc/zmx004

Miller, A. H., & MacKuen, M. (1979). Learning about the candidates: The 1976 presidential debates. Public Opinion Quarterly, 43, 326-346. doi: 10.1086/268525

Moor, L., & Anderson, J. R. (2019). A systematic literature review of the relationship between dark personality traits and antisocial online behaviours. Personality and Individual Differences, 144, 40-55. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2019.02.027

Moriarty, L. J., & Freiberger, K. (2008). Cyberstalking: Utilizing newspaper accounts to establish victimization patterns. Victims and Offenders, 3, 131-141. doi: 10.1080/155648 80801938169

Muise, A., Christofedes, E., & Desmarais, S. (2014). “Creeping” or just information seeking? Gender differences in partner monitoring in response to jealousy on Facebook. Personal Relationships, 21, 35-50. doi: 10.1111/pere.12014

Myles, D., Benoit-Barné, C., & Millerand, F. (2018). ‘Not your personal army!’ Investigating the organizing property of retributive vigilantism in a Reddit collective of websleuths. Information, Communication, & Society. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2018.1502336

Omaggio, N. F., Baker, M. J., & Conway, L. J. (2018). Have you ever Googled a patient or been friended by a patient? Social media intersects the practice of genetic counseling. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 27, 481-492. doi: 10.1007/s10897-017-0206-4

Ong, R. (2012). Online vigilante justice Chinese style and privacy in China. Information & Communications Technology Law, 21, 127-145. doi: 10.1080/13600834.2012.678653

Osatuyi, B. (2015). Is lurking an anxiety-masking strategy on social media sites? The effects of lurking and computer anxiety on explaining information privacy concern on social media platforms. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 324-332. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.062

O’Sullivan, P. B., & Carr, C. T. (2018). Masspersonal communication: A model bridging the mass-interpersonal divide. New Media & Society, 20, 1161-1180. doi: 10.1177/1461444816686104

Oulasvirta, A., Suomalainen, T., Hamari, J., Lampinen, A., & Karvonen, K. (2014). Transparency of intentions decreases privacy concerns in ubiquitous surveillance. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 633-638. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2013.0585

Ouwerkerk, J. W., & Johnson, B. K. (2016). Motives for online friending and following: The dark side of social network site connections. Social Media + Society, 2, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/2056305116664219

Pan. X. (2010). Hunt by the crowd: An exploratory qualitative analysis on cyber surveillance in China. Global Media Journal, 9(16). Retrieved from http://www.globalmediajournal. com/ open-access/hunt-by-the-crowd-an-exploratory-qualitative-analysis-on-cyber-surveillance-in-china.pdf

Pantumsinchai, P. (2018). Armchair detectives and the social construction of falsehoods: An actor-network approach. Information, Communication, & Society, 21, 761-778. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2018.1428654

Park, N., Lee, S., & Kim, J. H. (2012). Individuals’ personal network characteristics and patterns of Facebook use: A social network approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1700-1707. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.04.009

Park, M., Shin, J., & Ju, Y. (2015). A taxonomy of social networking site users: Social surveillance and self-surveillance perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 32, 601-610. doi: 10.1002/mar.20803

Park, M., Shin, J., & Ju, Y. (2019). Attachment styles and electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) adoption on social networking sites. Journal of Business Research, 99, 398-404. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.09.020

Pearce, K. E., & Vitak, J. (2016). Performing honor online: The affordances of social media for surveillance and impression management in an honor culture. New Media & Society, 18, 2595-2612. doi: 10.1177/1461444815600279

Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students’ networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 227-238. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010

Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1841-1848. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.02.014

Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Qiu, L., Lin, H., Chiu, C., & Liu, P. (2015). Online collective behaviors in China: Dimensions and motivations. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 15, 44-68. doi: 10.1111/asap.12049

Quan-Haase, A., & Young, A. L. (2010). Uses and gratifications of social media: A comparison of Facebook and instant messaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology, & Society, 30, 350-361. doi: 10.1177/0270467610380009

Quinn, K., & Papacharissi, Z. (2018). The contextual accomplishment of privacy. International Journal of Communication, 12, 45-67. Available at https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/ article/view/7016

Rains, S. A. (2018). Coping with illness digitally. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ramirez, A., Sumner, E. M., & Hayes, J. (2016). Reconnect on Facebook: The role of information seeking behavior and individual-and relationship-level factors. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19, 494-501. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0630

Ramirez, A., & Walther, J. B. (2009). Information seeking and interpersonal outcomes using the internet. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty, information management, and disclosure decisions: Theories and applications (pp. 67- 84). New York, NY: Routledge.

Ramirez, A., Walther, J. B., Burgoon, J. K., & Sunnafrank, M. (2002). Information-seeking strategies, uncertainty, and computer-mediated communication: Toward a conceptual model. Human Communication Research, 28, 213-228. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2002.tb00804.x

Reed, L. A., Tolman, R. M., & Safyer, P. (2015). Too close for comfort: Attachment insecurity and electronic intrusion in college students’ dating relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 431-438. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.050

Reed, L. A., Tolman, R. M., & Ward, L. M. (2016). Snooping and sexting: Digital media as a context for dating aggression and abuse among college students. Violence Against Women, 22, 1556-1576. doi: 10.1177/1077801216630143

Reed, L. A., Tolman, R. M., & Ward, L. M. (2017). Gender matters: Experiences and consequences of digital dating abuse victimization in adolescent dating relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 59, 79-89. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.05.015

Reed, L. A., Tolman, R. M., Ward, L. M., & Safyer, P. (2016). Keeping tabs: Attachment anxiety and electronic intrusion in high school dating relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 259-268. doi: 10.1016/j.chb. 2015.12.019

Reyns, B. W., Henson, B., & Fisher, B. S. (2011). Being pursued online: Applying cyberlifestyle-routine activities theory to cyberstalking victimization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38, 1149-1169. doi: 10.1177/0093854811421448

Rider, K. (2018). The privacy paradox: How market privacy facilitates government surveillance. Information, Communication & Society, 21, 1369-1385. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2017.1314531

Root, T., & McKay, S. (2014). Student awareness of the use of social media screening by prospective employers. Journal of Education for Business, 89, 202-206. doi: 10.1080/08832323.2013.848832

Rote, W. M., & Smetana, J. G. (2018). Within-family dyadic patterns of parental monitoring and adolescent information management. Developmental Psychology, 54, 2302-2315. doi: 10.1037/dev0000615

Roth, P. L., Bobko, P., Van Iddekinge,C. H., & Tatcher, J. B. (2016). Social media in employee-selection-related decisions: A research agenda for uncharted territory. Journal of Management, 42, 269-298. doi: 10.1177/0149206313503018

Roth, P. L., Thatcher, J. B., Bobko, P., Matthews, K. D., Ellingson, J. E., & Goldberg, C. B. (2019). Political affiliation and employment screening decisions: The role of similarity and identification processes. Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/apl0000422

Rubin, A. M. (2009). Uses-and-gratifications perspective on media effects. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver, Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 181-200). New York, NY: Routledge.

Rueda, H. A., Lindsay, M., & Williams, L. R. (2015). “She posted it on Facebook”: Mexican American adolescents’ experiences with technology and romantic relationship conflict. Journal of Adolescent Research, 30, 419-445. doi: 10.1177/0743558414565236

Rui, J. R., Covert, J. M., Stefanone, M. A., & Mukherjee, T. (2015). A communication multiplexity approach to social capital: On- and offline communication and self-esteem. Social Science Computer Review, 33, 498-518. doi: 10.1177/0894439314552803

Saldaña, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Samp, J. A., & Palevitz, C. E. (2014). Managing relational transgressions as revealed on Facebook: The influence of dependence power on verbal versus nonverbal responses. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38, 477-493. doi: 10.1007/s10919-014-0197-x

Scherr, S., Toma, C. L., & Schuster, B. (2018). Depression as a predictor of Facebook surveillance and envy: Longitudinal evidence from a cross-lagged panel study in Germany. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1027/1864- 1105/a000247

Schwarz, K. C. (2019). Humanitarian humor, digilantism, and the dilemmas of representing volunteer tourism on social media. New Media & Society, 21, 1928-1946. doi: 10.1177/1461444819834509

Seidman, G., Langlais, M., & Havens, A. (2019). Romantic relationship-oriented Facebook activities and the satisfaction of belonging needs. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8, 52-62. doi: 10.1037/ppm0000165

Shaw, A. M., Timpano, K. R., Tran, T. B., & Joormann, J. (2015). Correlates of Facebook usage patterns: The relationship between passive Facebook use, social anxiety symptoms, and brooding. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 575-580. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.02. 003

Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 89-97. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.059

Sheridan, L. P., & Grant, T. (2007). Is cyberstalking different? Psychology, Crime and Law, 13, 627-640. doi: 10.1080/10683160701340528.

Smith-Darden, J. P., Kernsmith, P. D., Victor, B. G., & Lathrop, R. A. (2016). Electronic displays of aggression in teen dating relationships: Does the social ecology matter? Computers in Human Behavior, 67, 33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.10.015

Smoker, M., & March, E. (2017). Predicting perpetration of intimate partner cyberstalking: Gender and the dark tetrad. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 390-396. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.012

Southworth, C., Finn, J., Dawson, S., Fraser, C., & Tucker, S. (2007). Intimate partner violence, technology, and stalking. Violence Against Women, 13, 842-856. doi: 10.1177/1077801207302045

Spitzberg, B. H., & Hoobler, G. (2002). Cyberstalking and the technologies of interpersonal terrorism. New Media & Society, 4, 71-92. doi: 10.1177/1461444802004001005

Standlee, A. (2019). Friendship and online filtering The use of social media to construct offline social networks. New Media & Society, 21, 770-785. doi: 10.1177/1461444818806844

Stefanone, M. A., Hurley, C. M., & Yang, Z. J. (2013). Antecedents of online information seeking. Information, Communication & Society, 16, 61-81. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2012.656137

Stewart, M. C., Dainton, M., & Goodboy, A. K. (2014). Maintaining relationships on Facebook: Associations with uncertainty, jealousy, and satisfaction. Communication Reports, 27, 13-26. doi: 10.1080/08934215.2013.845675

Stiff, C. (2019). The dark triad and Facebook surveillance: How Machiavellianism, psychopathy, but not narcissism predict using Facebook to spy on others. Computers in Human Behavior, 94, 62-69. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.12.044

Stonard, K. E. (2019). Technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse: A factor analysis of the nature of electronic communication technology used across twelve types of abusive and controlling behaviour. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28, 105-115. doi: 10.1007/s10826-018-1255-5

Stonard, K. E., Bowen, E., Lawrence, T. R., & Price, S. A. (2014). The relevance of technology to the nature, prevalence, and impact of adolescent dating violence and abuse: A research synthesis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 390-417. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2014.06.005

Stonard, K. E., Bowen, E., Walker, K., & Price, S. A. (2017). “They’ll always find a way to get to you”: Technology use in adolescent romantic relationships and its role in dating violence and abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32, 2083-2117. doi: 10.1177/0886260515590787

Stoycheff, E., Wibowo, K. A., Liu, J., & Xu, K. (2017). Online surveillance’s effect on support for other extraordinary measures to prevent terrorism. Mass Communication and Society, 20, 784-799. doi: 10.1080/15205436.2017.1350278

Strawhun, J., Adams, N., & Huss, M. T. (2013). The assessment of cyberstalking: An expanded examination including social networking, attachment, jealousy, and anger in retaliation to violence and abuse. Violence and Victims, 28, 715-730. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.11-00145

Tandoc, E. C., Ferrucci, P., & Duffy, M. (2015). Facebook use, envy, and depression among college students: Is Facebook depressing?. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.10.053

Ta?k?ran, H. B. (2019). Uses and gratifications approach, social media and personal branding: A study on social media users in Turkey. Communication Today, 10, 143-155. Retrieved from https://www.communicationtoday.sk/uses-and-gratifications-approach-social-media-and-personal-branding-a-study-on-social-media-users-in-turkey/

Tavani, H. T., & Grodzinsky, F. S. (2002). Cyberstalking, personal privacy, and moral responsibility. Ethics and Information Technology, 4, 123-132. doi: 10.1023/A:1019927824326

Temple, J. R., Choi, H. J., Brem, M., Wolford-Clevenger, C., Stuart, G. L., Peskin, M. F., & Elmquist, J. (2016). The temporal association between traditional and cyber dating abuse among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 340-349. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0380-3

Tian, X. (2016). Network domains in social networking sites: Expectations, meanings, and social capital. Information, Communication & Society, 19, 188-202. doi: 10.1080/136911 8X.2015.1050051

Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one another a bit

at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2002.tb00811.x

Tokunaga, R. S. (2011). Social networking site or social surveillance site? Understanding the use of interpersonal electronic surveillance in romantic relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 705-713. doi: 10.1016/j/chb.2010.08.014

Tokunaga, R. S. (2016). Interpersonal surveillance over social network sites: Applying a theory of negative relational maintenance and the investment model. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33, 171-190. doi: 10.1177/0265407514568749

Tokunaga, R. S., & Aune, K. S. (2017). Cyber-defense: A taxonomy of tactics for managing cyberstalking. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32, 1451-1475. doi: 10.1177/08862605 15589564

Tokunaga, R. S., & Gustafson, A. (2014). Seeking interpersonal information over the Internet: An application of the theory of motivated information management to Internet use. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31, 1019-1039. doi: 10.1177/0265407513516890

Tong, S. T. (2013). Facebook use during relationship termination: Uncertainty reduction and surveillance. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 788-793. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0549

Treem, J., & Leonardi, P. (2013). Social media use in organizations: Exploring the affordances of visibility, editability, persistence, and association. In C. T. Salmon (Ed.), Communication yearbook (vol. 36, pp. 143-189). New York, NY: Routledge.

Trottier. D. (2012). Interpersonal surveillance on social media. Canadian Journal of Communication, 37, 319-332. Retrieved from http://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal /article /view/2536/2761

Trottier. D. (2016). Digital vigilantism as weaponisation of visibility. Philosophy & Technology, 30, 55-72. doi: 10.1007/s13347-016-0216-4

Trottier. D. (2018). Scandal mining: Political nobodies and remediated visibility. Media, Culture, & Society, 40, 893-908. doi: 10.1177/01634437177344008

Underwood, M. K., & Ehrenreich, S. E. (2017). The power and the pain of adolescents’ digital communication: Cyber victimization and the perils of lurking. American Psychologist, 72, 144-158. doi: 10.1037/a0040429

Van Ouystel, J., Ponnet, K., & Walrave, M. (2018). Cyber dating abuse victimization among secondary school students from a lifestyle-routine activities theory perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33, 2767-2776. doi: 10.1177/0886260516629390

Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2016). The interrelated roles of mass media and social media in adolescents’ development of an objectified self-concept: A longitudinal study. Communication Research, 43, 1116-1140. doi: 10.1177/0093650215600488

Vendemia, M. A., High, A. C., & DeAndrea, D. C. (2017). “Friend” or foe? Why people friend disliked others on Facebook. Communication Research Reports, 34, 29-36. doi: 10.1080/08824096.2016.1227778

Verduyn, P., Lee, D. S., Park, J., Shablack, H., Orvell, A., Bayer, J., ... & Kross, E. (2015). Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 480-488. doi: 10.1037/xge0000057

Verduyn, P., Ybarra, O., Résibois, M., Jonides, J., & Kross, E. (2017). Do social network sites enhance or undermine subjective well?being? A critical review. Social Issues and Policy Review, 11, 274-302. doi: 10.1111/sipr.12033

Vinkers, C. D., Finkenauer, C., & Hawk, S. T. (2011). Why do close partners snoop? Predictors of intrusive behavior in newlywed couples. Personal Relationships, 18, 110-124. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01314.x

Wagner, T. R. (2018). When off-line seeks information online: The effect of modality switching and time on attributional confidence and social attraction. Communication Research Reports, 35, 346-355. doi: 10.1080/08824096.2018.1512484

Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23, 1-43. doi: 10.1177/009365096023001001

Walther, J. B., & Parks, M. R. (2002). Cues filtered out, cues filtered in: Computer-mediated communication and relationships. In M. L. Knapp & J. A. Daly (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication (3rd ed., pp. 529-563). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wang, S. S. (2015). To unfriend or not: exploring factors affecting users in keeping friends on Facebook and the implications on mediated voyeurism. Asian Journal of Communication, 25, 465-485. doi: 10.1080/01292986.2014.990469

Wang, F., Zeng, D., Hendler, J. A., Zhang, Q., Feng, Z., Gao, Y., …Lai, G. (2010). A study of the human flesh search engine: Crowd-powered expansion of online knowledge. Computer, 43, 45-53. doi: 10.1109/MC.2010.216

Wang, K., Zhou, M., & Zhang, Z. (2017). Can insecurely attached dating couples get compensated on social network sites? – The effect of surveillance. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 303-310. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.046

Weathers, M. R., & Hopson, M. C. (2015). “I define what hurts me”: A co-cultural theoretical analysis of communication factors related to digital dating abuse. Howard Journal of Communications, 26, 95-113. doi: 10.1080/10646175.2015.988475

Weeks, B., & Southwell, B. (2010). The symbiosis of news coverage and aggregate online search behavior: Obama, rumors, and presidential politics. Mass Communication & Society, 13, 341-360. doi: 10.1080/15205430903470532

Weinstein, E. (2017). Adolescents’ differential responses to social media browsing: Exploring causes and consequences for intervention. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 396-405. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.038

Weinstein, E. (2018). The social media see-saw: Positive and negative influences on adolescents’ affective well-being. New Media & Society, 20, 3597-3623. doi: 10.1177/1461444818755634

Westerman, D., Van Der Heide, B., Klein, K. A., & Walther, J. B. (2008). How do people really seek information about others? Information seeking across Internet and traditional communication channels. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 751-767. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2008.00418.x

Wise, K., Alhabash, S., & Park. H. (2010). Emotional responses during social information seeking on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 555-562. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0365

Wittkower, D. E. (2016). Lurkers, creepers, and virtuous interactivity: From property rights to consent and care as a conceptual basis for privacy concerns and information ethics. First Monday, 21(10). doi: 10.5210/fm.v21i10.6948

Wood, E., Senn, C. Y., Desmarais, S., Park, L., & Verberg, N. (2002). Sources of information about dating and their perceived influence on adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 401-417. doi: 10.1177/07458402017004005

Woods, H. S. (2018). Asking more of Siri and Alexa: Feminine persona in service of surveillance capitalism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 35, 334-349. doi: 10.1080/15295036.2018.1488082

Wright, M. F. (2015). Cyber aggression within adolescents’ romantic relationships: Linkages to parental and partner attachment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 37-47. doi: 10.1007/s10964-014-0147-2

Wright, M. F. (2017). Intimate partner aggression and adult attachment insecurity: The mediation of jealousy and anger. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 11, 187-198. doi: 10.1037/ebs0000097

Yang, C. (2016). Instagram use, loneliness, and social comparison orientation: Interact and browse on social media, but don’t compare. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19, 703-708. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2016.0201

Yardley, E., Lynes, A. G. T., Wilson, D., & Kelly, E. (2018). What’s the deal with ‘websleuthing’? News media representations of amateur detectives in networked spaces. Crime, Media, Culture, 14, 81-109. doi: 10.1177/1741659016674045

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Array