Advance Online Publication


Medication Adherence
Health Communication
Reminder Systems
Counseling Strategies

How to Cite

Maki, K., & Harris, K. (2021). Communication Strategies to Improve Medication Adherence: A Systematic Review of Literature. Review of Communication Research, 9. Retrieved from https://rcommunicationr.org/index.php/rcr/article/view/103


Less than optimal medication adherence is a persisting issue among many patient groups, resulting in poorer health outcomes along with increased strain on financial and time resources. However, communication strategies employed by clinicians may offer a simple, cost-effective method for improving medication adherence and health outcomes. This review of literature rendered search results from seven databases, resulting in 1,513 abstracts. A final sample of 44 studies was included to compare effectiveness of communication-based adherence strategies among various health conditions. After reviewing the full text of included studies, communication strategies were organized into four categories: patient reminders, collaborative communication, patient education, and counseling strategies. Although all of the strategies indicated some level of success, studies examining patient education components showed the most promise both in generalizability and results. This review’s results indicate that a need remains for quantitative research examining the effectiveness of these strategies to increase medical adherence.

Advance Online Publication


Aronson, J. K. (2007). Compliance, concordance, adherence. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(4), 383-384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02893.x

Babbie, E. (2010). The practice of social research (12th ed.).

Barnason, S. Zimmerman, L., Hertzog, M., Schulz, P. (2010). Pilot testing of a medication self-management transition intervention for heart failure patients. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32(7), 849-870. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945910371216

Bauer, A. M., Parker, M.M., Schillinger, D., Katon, W., Adler, N., Adams, A.S., Moffet, H.H., & Karter, A.J. (2014). Associations between antidepressant adherence and shared decision-making, patient-provider trust, and communication among adults with Diabetes: Diabetes study of Northern California (DISTANCE). JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29(8), 1139-1147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-014-2845-6

Bell, J. S., Airaksinen, M. S., Lyles, A., Chen, T. F., & Aslani, P. (2007). Concordance is not synonymous with compliance or adherence. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64(5), 710-711. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02971_1.x

Berkhof, M., van Rijssen, H. J., Schellart, A. J., Anema, J. R., & van der Beek, A. J. (2011). Effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to physicians: An overview of systematic reviews. Patient Education and Counseling, 84(2), 152-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.06.010

Blackwell, B. (1976). Treatment adherence. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 129(6), 513-531. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.129.6.513

Brand, P.L., Klok, T., & Kaptein, A.A. (2013). Using communication skills to improve adherence in children with chronic disease: The adherence equation. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 14(4), 219-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2013.01.003

Brath, H., Jürgen, M., Kästenbauer, T., Modre?Osprian, R., Strohner?Kästenbauer, H., Schwarz, M., Kort, W., & Schreier, G. (2013). Mobile health ( mHealth) based medication adherence measurement - a pilot trial using electronic blisters in diabetes patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 76, 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12184

Brown, M.T. & Bussell, J.K. (2011). Medication Adherence: WHO Cares?. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 86(4), 304-314. https://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2010.0575

Bull, S.A., Hu, X.H., Hunkeler, E.M., Lee, J.Y., Ming, E.E., Markson, L.E., & Fireman, B. (2002). Discontinuation of use and switching of antidepressants: Influence of patient-physician communication. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(11), 1403-1409. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.11.1403

Bultman, D.C. & Svarstad, B.L. (2000). Effects of physician communication style on client medication beliefs and adherence with antidepressant treatment. Patient Education and Counseling, 40(2), 173-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0738-3991(99)00083-X

Burda, C., Haack, M., Duarte, A.C., & Alemi, F. (2012). Medication adherence among homeless patients: A pilot study of cell phone effectiveness. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 24(11), 675-681. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00756.x

Chatterjee, J. (2006). From compliance to concordance in diabetes. Journal of medical ethics, 32(9), 507-510. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2005.012138

Ciechanowski, P.S., Katon, W.J., Russo, J.E., & Walker, E.A. (2001). The patient–provider relationship: Attachment theory and adherence to treatment in diabetes. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(1), 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.1.29

Cramer, J. A., Roy, A., Burrell, A., Fairchild, C. J., Fuldeore, M. J., Ollendorf, D. A., & Wong, P. K. (2008). Medication compliance and persistence: terminology and definitions. Value in Health, 11(1), 44-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00213.x

Cruz, M.., Roter, D.L., Cruz, R.F., Wieland, M., Larson, S., Cooper, L.A.,. Pincus, H.A. (2013). Appointment length, psychiatrists’ communication behaviors, and medication management appointment adherence. Psychiatric Services, 64(9), 886-892. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201200416

DiMatteo, M. R. (2004). Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: a meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.23.2.207

DiMatteo, M. R., Reiter, R.C., & Gambone, J.C. (1994). Enhancing medication adherence through communication and informed collaborative choice. Health Communication, 6(4), 253. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0604_2

Finocchario-Kessler, S., Catley, D., Thomson, D., Bradley-Ewing, A., Berkley-Patton, J., & Goggin, K. (2012). Patient communication tools to enhance ART adherence counseling in low and high resource settings. Patient Education and Counseling, 89(1), 163-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2012.03.020

Gray, R., Wykes, T., & Gournay, K. (2002). From compliance to concordance: A review of the literature on interventions to enhance compliance with antipsychotic medication. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 9(3), 277-284. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2850.2002.00474.x

Hailey, J.H.N. & Arscott, J. (2013). Using technology to effectively engage adolescents and young adults into care: STAR TRACK Adherence Program. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 24(6), 582-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jana.2013.03.001

Hardy, H., Kumar, V., Doros, G., Farmer, E., Drainoni, M.L., Rybin, D., Myung, D., Jackson, J., Backman, E., Stanic, A., & Skolnik, P.R. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of a personalized cellular phone reminder system to enhance adherence to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Patient Care & STDs, 25(3), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2010.0006

Haynes, R., & Sackett, D. (1979). Compliance in Health Care Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.

Heisler, M.., Cole, I., Weir, D., Kerr, E.A., & Hayward, R.A. (2007). Does physician communication influence older patients' Diabetes self-management and glycemic control? Results from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 62(12), 1435-1442. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/62.12.1435

Hersch, R.K., Cook, R.F., Billings, D.W., Kaplan, S., Murray, D., Safren, S., Goforth, J., & Spencer, J. (2013). Test of a web-based program to improve adherence to HIV medications. AIDS and Behavior, 17(9), 2963-2976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-013-0535-8

Horne, R., Weinman, J., Barber, N., Elliott, R., Morgan, M., Cribb, A., & Kellar, I. (2005). Concordance, adherence and compliance in medicine taking. London: NCCSDO, 2005, 40-46.

Im, H., & Huh, J. (2018). Relationship between exposure to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) and patients’ belief accessibility and medication adherence. Health Communication, 34(9), 975-983. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2018.1449070

Johnson, M. O., Chesney, M. A., Goldstein, R. B., Remien, R. H., Catz, S., Gore-Felton, C., Charlebois, E., Morin, S. F., & Team, N. H. L. P. (2006). Positive provider interactions, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral medications among HIV-infected adults: A mediation model. AIDS Patient Care & STDs, 20(4), 258-268. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2006.20.258

Kekäle, M., Söderlund, T., Koskenvesa, P., Talvensaari, K., & Airaksinen, M. (2016). Impact of tailored patient education on adherence of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: A randomized multicentre intervention study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(9), 2196-2206. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12978

Kim, Y., Dillard, J. P., & Smith, R. A. (2019). Communicating antibiotic stewardship: emotional responses and their impact on adherence. Health Communication, 35(7), 861-871. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2019.1598615

Koops van’t Jagt, R., de Winter, A. F., Reijneveld, S. A., Hoeks, J. C., & Jansen, C. J. (2016). Development of a communication intervention for older adults with limited health literacy: Photo stories to support doctor–patient communication. Journal of Health Communication, 21(sup2), 69-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2016.1193918

Kreps, G. L. (1989). Setting the agenda for health communication research and development: Scholarship that can make a difference. Health Communication, 1(1), 11-15. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0101_2

Langebeek, N., Gisolf, E. H., Reiss, P., Vervoort, S. C., Hafsteinsdóttir, T. B., Richter, C., Sprangers, M. A., & Nieuwkerk, P. T. (2014). Predictors and correlates of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for chronic HIV infection: A meta-analysis. BMC medicine, 12(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0142-1

Lenahan, J.L., McCarthy, D.M., Davis, T.C., Curtis, L.M., Serper, M., & Wolf, M.S. (2013). A drug by any other name: Patients' ability to identify medication regimens and its association with adherence and health outcomes. Journal of Health Communication, 18, 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2013.825671

Lester, R.T., Ritvo, P., Mills, E.J., Kariri, A., Karanja, S., Chung, M.H., Jack, W., Habyarimana, J., Sadatsafavi, M., Najafzadeh, M., Marra, C.A., Estambale, B., Ngugi, E., Ball, T.B., Thabane, L., Gelmon, L.J., Kimani, J., Ackers, M., & Plummer, F.A. (2010). Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): A randomised trial. The Lancet, 376(9755), 1838-1845. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61997-6

Lewis, M.A., Uhrig., J.D., Bann, C.M., Harris, J.L., Furberg, R.D., Coomes, C., & Kuhns, L.M. (2013). Tailored text messaging intervention for HIV adherence: A proof-of-concept study. Health Psychology, 32(3), 248-253. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028109

Macharia, W. M., Leon, G., Rowe, B. H., Stephenson, B. J., & Haynes, R. B. (1992). An overview of interventions to improve compliance with appointment keeping for medical services. JAMA, 267(13), 1813-1817. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480130129038

Mayo-Gamble, T. L., & Mouton, C. (2018). Examining the association between health literacy and medication adherence among older adults. Health Communication, 33(9), 1124-1130. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1331311

McDonald, H. P., Garg, A. X., & Haynes, R. B. (2002). Interventions to enhance patient adherence to medication prescriptions: scientific review. JAMA, 288(22), 2868-2879. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.22.2868

McKenzie, K., Chang,Y.P. (2015). The effect of nurse-led motivational interviewing on medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 51(1), 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12060

Meglic, M., Furlan, M., Kuzmanic, M., Kozel, D., Baraga, D., Kuhar, I., Kosir, B., Iljaz, R., Sarotar, B.N., Dernovsek, M.Z., Marusic, A., Eysenbach, G., & Brodnik, A. (2010). Feasibility of an eHealth service to support collaborative depression care: Results of a pilot study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12(5), 123-134. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1510

Meichenbaum, D., & Turk, D. C. (1987). Facilitating treatment adherence: A practitioner's guidebook. Plenum Press.

Meluch, A. L., & Oglesby, W. H. (2015). Physician–patient communication regarding patients’ healthcare costs in the US: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 8(2), 151-160. https://doi.org/ 10.1179/1753807615Y.0000000010

Mihalko, S. L., Brenes, G. A., Farmer, D. F., Katula, J. A., Balkrishnan, R., & Bowen, D. J. (2004). Challenges and innovations in enhancing adherence. Controlled clinical trials, 25(5), 447-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2004.07.003

Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2009). Ten things that motivational interviewing is not. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 129-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465809005128

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2010). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. International Journal of Surgery, 8(5), 336-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.02.007

Moral, R.R., de Torres, L.A.P., Ortega, L.P., Larumbe, M.C., Villalobos, A.R., García, J.A.F., & Rejano, J.M.P. (2015). Effectiveness of motivational interviewing to improve therapeutic adherence in patients over 65 years old with chronic diseases: A cluster randomized clinical trial in primary care. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(8), 977-983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.03.008

Morisky, D. E., Malotte, C. K., Choi, P., Davidson, P., Rigler, S., Sugland, B., & Langer, M. (1990). A patient education program to improve adherence rates with antituberculosis drug regimens. Health education quarterly, 17(3), 253-266. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019819001700303

Munro, S., Lewin, S., Swart, T., & Volmink, J. (2007). A review of health behaviour theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS? BMC public health, 7(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-104

Negarandeh, R., Mahmoodi, H., Noktehdan, H., Heshmat, R., & Shakibazadeh, E. (2013). Teach back and pictorial image educational strategies on knowledge about diabetes and medication/dietary adherence among low health literate patients with type 2 diabetes. Primary Care Diabetes, 7(2), 111-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2012.11.001

Ownby, R.L., Hertzog, C., & Czaja, S.J. (2012). Tailored information and automated reminding to improve medication adherence in Spanish- and English-Speaking elders treated for memory impairment. Clinical Gerontologist, 35(3), 221-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/07317115.2012.657294

Pakpour, A.H., Gholami, M., Esmaeili, R., Naghibi, S.A., Updegraff, J.A., Molloy, G.J., & Dombrowski, S.U. (2015). A randomized controlled multimodal behavioral intervention trial for improving antiepileptic drug adherence. Epilepsy & Behavior, 52(Part A), 133-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.08.036

Perera, A.I., Thomas, M.G., Moore, J.O., Faasse, K., & Petrie, K.J. (2014). Effect of a smartphone application incorporating personalized health-related imagery on adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A randomized clinical trial. AIDS Patient Care & STDs, 28(11), 579-586. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2014.0156

Polinski, J.M., Kesselheim, A.S., Frolkis, J.P., Wescott, P., Allen-Coleman, C., & Fischer, M.A. (2014). A matter of trust: Patient barriers to primary medication adherence. Health Education Research, 29(5), 755-763. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyu023

Pop-Eleches, C.., Thirumurthy, H., Habyarimana, J.P., Zivin, J.G., Goldstein, M.P., de Walque, D., MacKeen, L., Haberer, J., Kimaiyo, S., Sidle, J., Ngare, D., & Bangsberg, D.R. (2011). Mobile phone technologies improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting: A randomized controlled trial of text message reminders. AIDS, 25(6), 825-834. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834380c1

Prost, E., Musisi, S., Okello, E., & Hopman, W. (2013). The role of psycho-education in improving outcome at a general hospital psychiatry clinic in Uganda. African Journal of Psychiatry, 16(4), 264-270. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i4.35

Quirk, A., Chaplin, R., Hamilton, S., Lelliott, P., & Seale, C. (2013). Communication about adherence to long-term antipsychotic prescribing: An observational study of psychiatric practice. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(4), 639-647. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0581-y

Qureshi, N.N., Hatcher, J., Chaturvedi, N., & Jafar, T.H. (2007). Effect of general practitioner education on adherence to antihypertensive drugs: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition), 335(7628), 1030-1033. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39360.617986.AE

Robinson, G.L., Gilbertson, A.D., & Litwack, L. (1986). The effects of a psychiatric patient education to medication program on post-discharge compliance. Psychiatric Quarterly, 58(2), 113-118. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01064052

Rochon, D., Ross, M.W., Looney, C., Nepal, V.P., Price, A.J., & Giordano, T.P. (2011). Communication strategies to improve HIV treatment adherence. Health Communication, 26(5), 461-467. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2011.554168

Rollnick, S., Butler, C. C., Kinnersley, P., Gregory, J., & Mash, B. (2010). Motivational interviewing. BMJ, 340: c1900. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1900

Rost, K., Carter, W., & Inui, T. (1989). Introduction of information during the initial medical visit: Consequences for patient follow-through with physician recommendations for medication. Social Science & Medicine, 28(4), 315-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(89)90032-4

Roumie, C.L., Greevy, R., Wallston, K., Elasy, T., Kaltenbach, L., Kotter, K., Dittus, R., & Speroff, T. (2011). Patient centered primary care is associated with patient hypertension medication adherence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 34(4), 244-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-010-9304-6

Safren, S.A., Hendriksen, E.S., Desousa, N., Boswell, S.L., & Mayer, K.H. (2003). Use of an on-line pager system to increase adherence to antiretroviral medications. AIDS Care, 15(6), 787-793. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120310001618630

Sanguansak, T., Morley, K.E., Morley, M.G., Thinkhamrop, K., Thuanman, J., & Agarwal, I.. (2017). Two-way social media messaging in postoperative cataract surgical patients: Prospective interventional study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(12). https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.8330

Sanmarti, L. S., Megias, J. A., Gomez, M. A., Soler, J. C., Alcala, E. N., Puigbo, M. S., & Majem, L. S. (1993). Evaluation of the efficacy of health education on the compliance with antituberculosis chemoprophylaxis in school children. A randomized clinical trial. Tubercle and lung disease, 74(1), 28-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/0962-8479(93)90065-6

Scheurer, D., Choudhry, N., Swanton, K. A., Matlin, O., & Shrank, W. (2012). Association between different types of social support and medication adherence. The American journal of managed care, 18(12), e461-467. PMID: 23286676

Schneider, J., Kaplan, S.H., Greenfield, S., Li, W., & Wilson, I.B. (2004). Better physician-patient relationships are associated with higher reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19(11), 1096-1103. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30418.x

Schoenthaler, A., Chaplin, W.F., Allegrante, J.P., Fernandez, S., Diaz-Gloster, M., Tobin, J.N., & Ogedegbe, G. (2009). Provider communication effects medication adherence in hypertensive African Americans. Patient Education & Counseling, 75(2), 185-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2008.09.018

Shea, S. C. (2006). Improving medication adherence: how to talk with patients about their medications. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sheridan, S. L., Halpern, D. J., Viera, A. J., Berkman, N. D., Donahue, K. E., & Crotty, K. (2011). Interventions for individuals with low health literacy: A systematic review. Journal of Health Communication, 16(sup3), 30-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2011.604391

Simon, G.E., Ralston, J.D., Savarino, J., Pabiniak, C., Wentzel, C., & Operskalski, B.H. (2011). Randomized trial of depression follow-up care by online messaging. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(7), 698-704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-011-1679-8

Sleath, B., Carpenter, D.M., Slota, C., Williams, D., Tudor, G., Yeatts, K., Davis, S., & Ayala, G.X. (2012). Communication during pediatric asthma visits and self-reported asthma medication adherence. Pediatrics, 130(4), 627-633. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0913

Smillie, K., Van Borek, N., Abaki, J., Pick, N., Maan, E.J., Friesen, K., Graham, R., Levine, S., van der Kop, M.L., Lester, R.T., & Murray, M. (2014). A Qualitative Study Investigating the Use of a Mobile Phone Short Message Service Designed to Improve HIV Adherence and Retention in Care in Canada (WelTel BC1). Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 25(6), 614-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jana.2014.01.008

Tavakoly Sany, S.B., Payman, N., Behzhad, F., Esmaeily, H., Taghipoor, A., & Ferns, G. (2018). Health providers’ communication skills training affects hypertension outcomes. Medical Teacher, 40(2), 154-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2017.1395002

Tran, N., Coffman, J.M., Sumino, K., & Cabana, M.D. (2014). Patient reminder systems and asthma medication adherence: A systematic review. Journal of Asthma, 51(5), 536-543. https://doi.org/10.3109/02770903.2014.888572

Virgolesi, M., Pucciarelli, G., Colantoni, A.M., D'Andrea, F., Di Donato, B., Giorgi, F., Landi, L., Salustri, E., Turci, C., & Proietti, M.G. (2017). The effectiveness of a nursing discharge programme to improve medication adherence and patient satisfaction in the psychiatric intensive care unit. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(23-24), 4456-4466. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13776

Wachira, J., Middlestadt, S., Reece, M., Peng, C.Y.J., & Braitstein, P. (2014). Physician communication behaviors from the perspective of adult HIV patients in Kenya. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 26(2), 190-197. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzu004

White, R.O., Eden, S., Wallston, K.A., Kripalani, S., Barto, S., Shintani, A., & Rothman, R.L. (2015). Health communication, self-care, and treatment satisfaction among low-income diabetes patients in a public health setting. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(2), 144-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2014.10.019

Windsor, R.A., Bailey, W.C., Richards Jr, J.M., Manzella, B., Sen-Jaw, S., & Brooks, M. (1990). Evaluation of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of health education methods to increase medication adherance among adults with asthma. American Journal of Public Health, 80(12), 1519-1521. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.12.1519

Wolff, K., Cavanaugh, K., Malone, R., Hawk, V., Gregory, B. P., Davis, D., Wallston, K., & Rothman, R. L. (2009). The Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET). The Diabetes Educator, 35(2), 233-245. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721709331945

Zolfaghari, M., Mousavifar, S.A., Pedram, S. & Haghani, H. (2012). The impact of nurse short message services and telephone follow-ups on diabetic adherence: which one is more effective?. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(13-14), 1922-1931. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03951.x

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Array