A Review of the Participant Observation Method in Journalism: Designing and Reporting

Main Article Content

Soo Young Shin
Serena Miller


The participant observation method involves numerous methodological competencies and procedures, yet no systematic research has been found to date that evaluates the qualitative practice. The method has played a foundational role in the field of journalism and is growing in use among researchers. Despite its contributions to knowledge about organizations, movements, and cultures, the procedures that encompass the method may be unfamiliar or unclear for some researchers according to the literature. The study analyzed journalism researchers’ reporting of methodological information in studies involving news contexts and assessed scholars’ adherence to methodological reporting best practices in 150 journal articles. The results showed participant observation researchers employed data trustworthiness techniques by primarily using qualitative formal interviews and they also provided site selection logic. The results, however, also showed evidence of methodological conceptual ambiguity when referring to participant observation method techniques and low reporting of several specific recommended techniques associated with participation observation. The narrative reflects our desire to help other researchers learn more about the method, while also encouraging methodological transparency to improve the collective understanding of the method. We put forth eight participant observation reporting recommendations rooted in anthropology and sociology to consider when reporting methodological practices. The hope is this introduction and the proposed measures will initiate discussions and support community around the practice of participant observation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shin, S. Y. ., & Miller, S. . (2022). A Review of the Participant Observation Method in Journalism: Designing and Reporting. Review of Communication Research, 10. Retrieved from https://rcommunicationr.org/index.php/rcr/article/view/133
Methodology in Communication Research
Author Biographies

Soo Young Shin, Michigan State University

Soo Young Shin (Michigan State University, M.A.) is mainly interested in the impact of digital technologies on news media organizational leadership and journalists with an emphasis on journalistic practices. Shin also investigates the relationships between journalists and news audiences with the intent of learning how to repair trust. She also researches and teaches engaged journalism, data journalism, and business journalism. She has worked as a journalist, copyeditor, and columnist in South Korea.

Serena Miller, Michigan State University

Serena Miller is an Associate Professor of Journalism Innovations at Michigan State University and a former Associate Editor for Journalism Studies. Miller’s earliest research focused on media sociology, news content characteristics, journalism education, and alternative models of journalism. Her quantitative and qualitative approaches addressed fundamental questions such as who should be classified as a journalist and what is knowledge. Her interests have evolved toward studying the sociology of knowledge, social science theory building, public engagement, and targeting concepts in need of conceptual and empirical specification.


Adler, P., A, & Adler, P. (2011). The history and epistemology of fieldwork roles. In membership roles in field research (pp. 9-36). Sage. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412984973.n1

Atkinson, P., & Hammersley, M. (1998). Ethnography and participant observation. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Strategies of qualitative inquiry (pp. 248-261). Sage.

Angen, M. J. (2000). Evaluating interpretative inquiry: Reviewing the validity debate and opening the dialogue. Qualitative Health Research, 10(3), 378-395. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973230001000308

A?Ik, O. (2019). Politics, power, and performativity in the newsroom: an ethnography of television journalism in Turkey. Media, Culture & Society, 41(5), 587-603. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443718799400

Aziz, H. A. (2017). Comparison between field research and controlled laboratory research. Archive of Clinical and Biomedical Research, 1, 101-104. https://doi.org/10.26502/acbr.50170011

Baker, L. (2006). Observation: A complex research method. Library Trends, 55, 171-189.


Batabyal, S. (2012). The story of Nandigram. Continuum, 26(2), 261-273. https://doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2011.538470

Bauman, L. J., & Greenberg Adair, E. (1992). The use of ethnographic interviewing to inform questionnaire construction. Health Education Quarterly, 19(1), 9-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019819201900102

Becker, H. S. (1996). The epistemology of qualitative research. In R. Jessor, A. Colby, & R. A.

Shweder (Ed.), Ethnography and human development: Context and meaning in social inquiry (pp. 53–71). The University of Chicago Press.

Becker, H. S., & Geer, B. (1958). “Participant observation and interviewing": Rejoinder. Human Organization, 17, 39-43. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.17.2.mm7q44u54l347521

Becker, H. S. (1958). Problems of inferences and proof in participant observation. American Sociological Review, 23(6), 652-660. https://doi.org/10.2307/2089053

Beckmann, E. A. (2017). Leadership through fellowship: Distributed leadership in a professional recognition scheme for university educators. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 39, 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080x.2017.1276663

Belair-Gagnon, V., & Revers, M. (2018). The sociology of journalism. In T. P. Vos (Ed.)

Journalism. Handbooks of Communication Science (pp. 257-280). De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501500084-013

Bernard, H. Russell (1994). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (2nd ed.). Alta Mira Press.

Benson, R., & Neveu, E. (2005). Introduction. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Ed.), Bourdieu and the journalistic field (pp. 1-25). Polity.

Birt, L., Scott, S., Cavers, D., Campbell, C., & Walter, F. (2016). Member checking: a tool to enhance trustworthiness or merely a nod to validation? Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 1802-1811. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316654870

Blevins, M. D., (2017). Participant observation. In M. Allen (Ed.), Encyclopedia of communication research methods (pp. 1188-1190). Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411.n412

Becker, L. B., & Vlad, T. (2009). News organizations and routines. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The handbook of journalism studies (pp. 59-72). Routledge.

Bourdieu, P. (2005). The political field, the social science field, and the journalistic field. In R.

Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the journalistic field (pp. 29-47). Polity.

Boczkowski, P. J. (2009). Rethinking hard and soft news production: From common ground to divergent paths. Journal of Communication, 59, 98-116. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01406.x

Boczkowski, P. J. (2004). The processes of adopting multimedia and interactivity in three online

newsrooms. Journal of Communication, 54(2), 197-213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02624.x

Borg, S. (2021). Video-based observation in impact evaluation. Evaluation and Program

Planning, 89, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2021.102007

Breed, W. (1955). Social control in the newsroom. Social Forces, 33, 326-335. https://doi.org/10.2307/2573002

Bunce, M. (2019). Management and resistance in the digital newsroom. Journalism, 20, 890-


Caines, K. E. (2010). Field study. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Research Design (pp. 431-433). Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288.n152

Cohen, J. H. (2000). Problems in the field: Participant observation and the assumption of neutrality. Field Methods, 12(4), 316-333. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X0001200404

Corbetta, P. (2003). Participant observation. In Social research: Theory, methods, and techniques (pp. 235-263). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209922.n9

Cottle, S. (2007). Ethnography and news production: New(s) developments in the field. Sociology Compass, 1, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00002.x

Cottle, S. (2000). New(s) times: Towards a ‘second wave’ of news ethnography. Communications, 25, 19-41. https://doi.org/10.1515/comm.2000.25.1.19

Cottle, S. (2009). Participant observation: Researching news production. In A. Hansen

(Ed.), Mass Communication Research Methods (pp. 260-285). Sage.

Crick, J. M. (2021). Qualitative research in marketing: What can academics do better? Journal of Strategic Marketing, 29(5), 390-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2020.1743738

De Beer, A. S. (1993). Qualitative research in journalism: The quest for validity and objectivity. Communication, 10, 80-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/02500169308537728

DeWalt, K.M., & DeWalt, B. R. (2011). Participant observation: A guide for fieldworkers. Altamira. https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.49-0366

Di Domenico, M. L., & Phillips, N. (2010). Participant observation. In A. J. Mills & E. Wiebe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of case study research (pp. 653-655). Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412957397.n244

Duffy, A., Tandoc, E. C., & Ling, R. (2018). Frankenstein journalism. Information, Communication & Society, 21(10), 1354-1368. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1313884

Eckman, A., & Lindlof, T. (2003). Negotiating the gray lines: An ethnographic case study of organizational conflict between advertorials and news. Journalism Studies, 4(1), 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700306507

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1989.4308385

Elmasry, M. H. (2011). Producing news in Mubarak’s Egypt: An analysis of Egyptian newspaper production during the last Hosni Mubarak era. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 4(2&3), 121-144. https://doi.org/10.1386/jammr.4.2-3.121_1

Emerson, R. M. (1987). Four ways to improve the craft of fieldwork. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 16(1), 540-548. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891241687161005

Epstein, B. (1973). News from nowhere: Television and the news. Random House.

Erjavec, K., & Poler Kova?i?, M. (2010). News producers' pressures on advertisers: Production of paid news in Slovenian television programs. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(3), 357-372. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2010.498853

Erjavec, K. (2004). Beyond advertising and journalism: Hybrid promotional news discourse. Discourse & Society, 15(5), 553-578. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926504045032

Ferrucci, P., Russell, F. M., Choi, H., Duffy, M., & Thorson, E. (2017). Times are a changin’:

How a merger affects the construction of news processes. Journalism Studies, 18(3), 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1065197

Fink, E. J. & Gantz, W. (1996). A content analysis of three mass communication traditions: Social science, interpretative, and critical analysis. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 73(1), 114- 134. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769909607300111

Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research, 4th ed. Sage.

Forsey, M. (2010). Ethnography and the myth of participant observation. In S. Hillyard (Ed.), New frontiers in ethnography, studies in qualitative methodology, vol. 11 (pp. 65-79). Emerald. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1042-3192(2010)0000011007

Frank, A. W. (2012). Practicing dialogical narrative analysis. In J. A. Holstein & J. F. Gubrium (Ed.), Varieties of narrative analysis (pp. 33-52). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781506335117.n3

Gans, H. (2011). Participant observation in the era of “ethnography.” In P. Atkinson & S. Delmont. Sage Qualitative Research Methods (pp. 1-8). Sage.

Gans, H. (1999). Participant observation in the era of “ethnography.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 28(5), 69-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124199129023532

Gans, H. (1979). Deciding what’s news. Pantheon. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02701600

Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. Basic Books.

Gehman, J., Glaser, V. L., Eisenhardt, K. M., Gioia, D., Langley, A., & Corley, K. G. (2018). Finding theory-method fit: A comparison of three qualitative approaches to theory building. Journal of Management Inquiry, 27(3), 284-300. https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492617706029

Genovese, J. (2015). Sports television reporters and the negotiation of fragmented professional identities. Communication, Culture & Critique, 8, 55–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/cccr.12069

Gerring, J. (2004). What is a case study and what is it good for? American Political Science Review, 341-354. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055404001182

Given, L. M., & Leckie, G. J. (2003). “Sweeping” the library: Mapping the social activity space of the public library. Library & Information Science Research, 25, 365-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0740-8188(03)00049-5

Glaser, B. G., Strauss, A. L., & Strutzel, E. (1968). The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Nursing Research, 17, 364. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-196807000-00014

Gold, R. L. (1958). Roles in sociological field observations. Social Forces, 36(3), 217-223. https://doi.org/10.2307/2573808

Guest, G., Namey, E. E., & Mitchell, M. L. (2013). Collecting qualitative data: A field manual for applied research. Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781506374680

Gustafsson, J. (2017). Single case studies vs. multiple case studies: A comparative study. (Thesis). Halmstad, Sweden: Halmstad University.

Hammersley, M. (2006). Ethnography: problems and prospects. Ethnography and Education, 1(1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457820500512697

Hammersley, M. (1995). Theory and evidence in qualitative research. Quality and Quantity, 29, 55-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01107983

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in Practice, 3rd ed.

Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203944769

Harrison, A. K. (2018). Ethnography. Understanding qualitative research. Oxford

University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199371785.001.0001

Hart, T. (2022). Exploring cultural communication from the inside out. An ethnographic toolkit. Cognella.

Hassan, M. M., & Elmasry, M. H. (2019). Convergence between platforms in the newsroom. Journalism Practice, 13(4), 476-492. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2018.1507681

Hennell, K., Limmer, M., & Piacentini, M. (2020). Ethical dilemmas using social media in qualitative social research: A case study of online participant observation. Sociological Research Online, 25(3), 473-489. https://doi.org/10.1177/1360780419888933

Hettinga, K. E. (2013) Experiencing error: How journalists describe what it's like when the press fails. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/08900523.2012.746529

Hockey, J., & Forsey, M. (2012). Ethnography is not participant observation: Reflections on the interview as participatory qualitative research. In J. Skinner (Ed.), The interview: An ethnographic approach (pp. 69–87). Berg. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781474214230.ch-002

Hokka, J. (2019). Towards nuanced universality: Developing a concept bible for public service online news production. European Journal of Communication, 34(1), 74–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323118810862

Humphreys, L, Lewis, N. A., Sender, K., & Stevenson Won, A. (2021). Integrating qualitative methods and open science: Five principles for more trustworthy research. Journal of Communication, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1093/joc/jqab026

Jorgensen, D. L. (1989). A participant observation. A methodology for human studies. Sage. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412985376.n1

Kawulich, B. B. (2005). Participant observation as a data collection method. Qualitative Social Research, 6, 1-22. Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs/

Korbin, J. E. (2018). Participant observation. In M. H. Bornstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of

Lifespan Human Development (pp. 1597-1599). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781506307633.n598

Kumar, A., & Haneef, M. S. (2018). Is mojo (en) de-skilling? Unfolding the practices of mobile

journalism in an Indian newsroom. Journalism Practice, 12, 1292-1310. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2017.1389291

Kurz, D. E. (1983). The use of participant observation research in evaluation research. Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 93-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189(83)90022-8

Lacy, S., Watson, B. R., Riffe, D., & Lovejoy, J. (2015). Issues and best practices in content analysis. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 92(4), 791-811. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699015607338

LeCompte, M. D. (2000). Analyzing qualitative data. Theory into Practice, 39, 146-154. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip3903_5

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Sage.

Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B.C. (2017). Qualitative communication research methods, 4th ed. Sage.

Lu, A. S. (2007). The characteristics of introductory research methods in mass communication doctoral programs. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 62(3), 289-304. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769580706200305

Luff, P., Hindmarsh, J., & Heath, C. (2000). Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and information system design. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628122

Lund, M. K. (2012). More news for less. How the professional values of 24/7 journalism reshaped Norway's TV2 newsroom. Journalism Practice, 6(2), 201-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2011.633791

Manninen, V. J. (2017). Sourcing practices in online journalism: An ethnographic study of the formation of trust in and the use of journalistic sources. Journal of Media Practice, 18, 212-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/14682753.2017.1375252

Mabweazara, H. M. (2013). Ethnography as negotiated lived experience’: Researching the fluid and multi-sited uses of digital technologies in journalism practice. Westminster Papers, 9(3), 97-120. doi:10.16997/wpcc.175

Malinowski, B. (1922). Argonauts of the Western Pacific. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

McKechnie, L. E. (2008). Participant observation. In L. M. Given (Ed.), Encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (pp. 599-600). Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963909.n309

McQuail, D. (1985). Sociology of mass communication. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 93-11. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.11.080185.000521

Moon, R. (2019). Beyond puppet journalism: The bridging work of transnational journalists in a local field. Journalism Studies, 20(12), 1714-1731. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2019.1638293

Morse, J. (1994). Designing funded qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Ed.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 138-157). Sage.

Nip, J. Y. M. (2008) The last days of civic journalism. Journalism Practice, 2(2), 179-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512780801999352

Paterson, C., & Domingo, D. (2008). Making online news: The ethnography of new media production. Peter Lang.

Persaud, I. (2010). Field study. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 489-490). Sage. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288.n152

Platt, J. (1983). The development of the “participant observation” method in sociology: Origin myth and history. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 19(4), 379-393. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6696(198310)19:4<379::AID-JHBS2300190407>3.0.CO;2-5

Reese, S. D. (2016). The new geography of journalism research: Levels and spaces. Digital Journalism, 4, 816-826. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2016.1152903

Reese, S. D. (2009). Managing the symbolic arena: The media sociology of Herbert Gans. In C.

Holtz-Bacha, G. Reus, & L. B. Becker (Ed.), Wissenschaft mit Wirkung (pp. 279–293). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. doi:10.1007/978-3-531-91756-6_20

Reese, S. D., & Ballinger, J. (2001). The roots of a sociology of news: Remembering Mr. Gates

and social control in the newsroom. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(4), 641-658. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900107800402

Revers, M. (2015). The augmented newsbeat: Spatial structuring in a Twitterized news

ecosystem. Media, Culture & Society, 37(1), 51-67. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443714549085

Riffe, D., Lacy, S., Watson, B., & Fico, F. G. (2019). Analyzing media messages. Using

quantitative analysis in research. Lawrence Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429464287

Roberts, L. D., & Povee, K. (2014). A brief measure of attitudes towards qualitative research in psychology. Australian Journal of Psychology, 66(4), 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12059

Sandiford, P. J. (2015). Participant observation as ethnography or ethnography as participant observation in organizational research. In K. D. Strang (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Research Design in Business and Management, (pp. 411-443). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137484956.0031

Schensul, J. J., & LeCompte, M. D. (2012). Essential ethnographic methods: A mixed methods approach. Rowman Altamira.

Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects.

Education for Information, 22, 63-75. doi:10.3233/EFI-2004-22201

Seim, J. (2021). Participant observation, observant participation, and hybrid ethnography. Sociological Methods & Research, 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124120986209

Silverman, D. (2006). Interpreting qualitative data. Sage

Silverman, D. (2020). Collecting qualitative data during a pandemic. Communication and Medicine, 17(1), 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1558/cam.19256

Singer, J. B. (2009). Ethnography. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86, 191-198. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900908600112

Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. Hold, Rinehart and Winston.

Steele, R. M. (1987). Video ethics: The dilemma of value balancing. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 2(2), 7-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/08900528709358289

Steensen, S. (2009). The shaping of an online feature journalist. Journalism, 10(5), 702-718. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884909106540

Stryker, J. E., Wray, R. J., Hornik, R. C., & Yanovitzky, I. (2006). Validation of database search terms for content analysis: The case of cancer news coverage. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83(2), 413-430. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900608300212

Sumiala, J., & Tikka, M. (2020). Digital media ethnographers on the move–An unexpected proposal. Journal of Digital Social Research, 2(1), 39-55. http://hdl.handle.net/10138/316299

Tameling, K., & Broersma, M. (2013). De-converging the newsroom: Strategies for newsroom change and their influence on journalism practice. International Communication Gazette, 75(1), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048512461760

Tandoc, E. C., & Vos, T. P. (2016). The journalist is marketing the news. Social media in the gatekeeping process. Journalism Practice, 10(8), 950-966. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2015.1087811

Taylor, S. J., & Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. (3rd ed.). Wiley.

Tenzek, K. E. (2018). Field notes. In M. Allen (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of communication research methods (pp. 1-6). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411.n201

The British Sociological Society (2021). Ethics guidelines for internet-mediated research, 1-23. Retrieved from http://www.bps.org.uk/sites/www.bps.org.uk/files/Policy/Policy%20-%20Files/Ethics%20Guidelines%20for%20Internet-mediated%20Research.pdf

Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., & Craig, P. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): A 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 349-357. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzm042

Tuchman, G. (1973). Making news by doing work: Routinizing the unexpected. American Journal of Sociology, 79, 110-131. https://doi.org/10.1086/225510

Tuchman, G. (2002). Media institutions qualitative methods in the study of news. In A handbook of qualitative methodologies for mass communication research (pp. 93-106). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203409800-9

Van de Ven, A. H., & Poole, M. S. (2017). Field research methods. In J. A. Baum (Ed.), The Blackwell companion to organizations (pp. 867-888). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405164061.ch38

Vandendaele, A., & Jacobs, G. (2014). The Lowlands Newsroom Model: Fieldwork notes on the position of the newspaper sub-editor. Journalism Studies, 15(6), 879-897. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2013.851161

Verd, J. M., Barranco, O., & Lozares, C. (2021). Blending the focused ethnographic method and case study research: Implication regarding case selection and generalization of results. Field Methods, 33(1), 25-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X20932495

White, D. (1950). The 'gatekeeper': A case study in the selection of news. Journalism Quarterly, 27, 383-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769905002700403

Willig, I. (2013). Newsroom ethnography in a field perspective. Journalism, 14(3), 372-387. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912442638

Westlund, O., & Ekström, M. (2019). The dislocation of news journalism: A conceptual framework for the study of epistemologies of digital journalism. Media and Communication, 7, 259-270. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v7i1.1763

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research. Design and methods, 3rd ed. Sage.

Zelizer, B. (2004). Taking journalism seriously: News and the Academy. Sage.