REVIEW OF COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
specializes in publishing literature review articles
PERSUASION AND SOCIAL INFLUENCE                                                                                                

Title & Authors

Unintended Effects of Advertising: An Updated Qualitative Review

Jie Xu (Villanova University, USA)

Highlights

 

• The current study aims to provide an up-to-date synthesis depicting the state of the art on the unintended effects of advertising.

• A thematic analysis approach was taken in this qualitative review.

We reviewed three primary theoretical frameworks used in the literature, unfolded five main dimensions, and introduced a typology of nine types of unintended effects.

• Three dominating theories in this area are: Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT), Social Comparison Theory, and Cultivation theory.

• Five dimensions include variations in valence, levels of analysis, time lapse, content specificity, and audience types.

• Nine types of unintended effects are: confusion, materialism, idealization, stereotypes, boomerang, violence, creativity, job performance, and economic growth.

• Future research should explore whether there is a blur between intended and unintended effects, as well as strengthen both theoretical and empirical inquires within this branch of advertising scholarship.

Abstract

Like most strategic communication efforts, advertising produces both intended and unintended effects. However, there has been little systematic effort to synthesizing the unintended effects of advertising. This paper attempt to fill the gap in the literature. A thematic review was conducted to review the dimensions, types, and theories concerning the unintended effects of advertising. Variations of unintended effects in valence, levels of analysis, time lapse, content specificity, and audience types were discerned, on the basis of which a typology of nine unintended effects was proposed, including confusion, materialism, idealization, stereotypes, boomerang, violence, creativity, job performance and economic growth. The implications and directions for future research were discussed. It is hoped that the conceptual dimensions and types of unintended effects presented in this paper will serve as an evolving framework for endeavors to enhancing the theory and practice of advertising.

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Unintended Effects of Advertising: An Updated Qualitative Review

Jie Xu (Villanova University, USA)

 

Keywords: Unintended Effects; Advertising; Review;

 

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Content

UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING: OVERVIEW & THE CURRENT STUDY
METHOD

Study Retrieval
Thematic Analysis Procedure

FINDINGS

Theoretical Frameworks
Dimensions of Unintended Effects

Valence: Undesirable or desirable
Level of analysis: Individual or societal
Content-specific or content-diffusive effects
Target audience: Intended or unintended
Time lapse: Long or short term

Typology of Unintended Effects

Confusion
Materialism
Idealization
Stereotypes
Boomerang
Violence
Creativity
Job Performance
Economic Growth

DISCUSSION

Theoretical Implications
Table 1. Dimensions of Unintended Effects of Advertising
Table 2. Typology of Unintended Effects of Advertising
Practical Implications
Limitations and Future Research

REFERENCES
COPYRIGHTS AND REPOSITORIES

  

Keywords

Unintended Effects, Advertising, Review.

 

About the Author

Jie Xu (Ph.D., The University of Alabama, 2008) is an associate professor in the Department of Communication at Villanova University. Please send correspondence concerning this article to Jie Xu, Department of Communication, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Garey Rm 20, Villanova, PA 19085, USA, Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. 

 

MASS COMMUNICATION THEORY                                                                                                

Title & Authors

Reconceptualizing Cognitive Media Effects Theory and Research Under the Judged Usability Model

ByungGu Lee (Independent Researcher, USA)

Douglas M. McLeod (University of Wisconsin—Madison, USA)

Highlights

• This review evaluates existing theory and research pertaining to the cognitive media effects of agenda setting, priming and framing.

• Accessibility-based explanations typically used to account for agenda-setting and priming effects are shown to be inadequate.

Judged usability, an evaluation of whether a consideration is useful in making subsequent judgments, is suggested as a common mediator shaping cognitive media effects.

• Theory and research are synthesized into a Judged Usability Model, representing the common psychological processes of agenda setting, framing, and priming.

• At the heart of the Judged Usability Model is the equation: Judgment = ΣUi * Ei, where Ui is the judged usability of consideration i, and Ei is the evaluation of the target on consideration i.

• Judged usability is further broken down into the equation: JU = Σ Ii *  Ri , where Ii is the perceived importance of consideration i, and Ri is the perceived relevance of consideration i.

• The influence of judged usability standards is moderated by the judged certainty of each these judgments.

• The Judged Usability Model raises the prospect of reverse agenda setting and priming, the potential for a message to reduce the importance of a judgment consideration.

Abstract

This review synthesizes the existing literature on cognitive media effects, including agenda setting, framing, and priming, in order to identify their similarities, differences, and inherent commonalities. Based on this review, we argue that the theory and research on each of these cognitive effects share a common view that media affect audience members by influencing the relative importance of considerations used to make subsequent judgments (including their answers to post-exposure survey questions). In reviewing this literature, we note that one important factor is often ignored, the extent to which a consideration featured in the message is deemed usable for a given subsequent judgment, a factor called judged usability, which may be an important mediator of cognitive media effects like agenda setting, framing and priming. Emphasizing judged usability leads to the revelation that media coverage may not just elevate a particular consideration, but may also actively suppress a consideration, rendering it less usable for subsequent judgments, opening a new avenue for cognitive effects research. In the interest of integrating these strands of cognitive effects research, we propose the Judged Usability Model as a revision of past cognitive models.

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Reconceptualizing Cognitive Media Effects Theory and Research Under the Judged Usability Model

ByungGu Lee (Independent Researcher, USA)

Douglas M. McLeod (University of Wisconsin—Madison, USA)

 

Keywords: Media Effects; Cognitive Media Effects; Framing Effects; Agenda-setting; Priming; News Framing

 

  Filesize 8.79 MB Download 121

 

 

Content

 

Introduction

Overview of Agenda Setting, Priming, and Framing

Agenda Setting

Priming Effects

Framing Effects

Cognitive Psychological Approaches to Agenda Setting, Priming, and Framing Research

Psychological Mechanisms of Agenda Setting, Priming, and Framing

Agenda Setting

Priming Effects

Lacking Support for the Accessibility Bias Hypothesis

Agenda Setting and Priming: Recent Evidence

Mechanisms of Framing Effects

Redefining the Relationships among Agenda Setting, Priming, and Framing

The Judged Usability Model

Judged Usability Standards

Importance and Relevance

Evaluations

Judgment Certainty

Message Effects and Judged Usability

Reverse Agenda Setting and Reverse Priming

Conclusion

References

 

  

Keywords

Media Effects, Cognitive Media Effects, Framing Effects, Agenda-setting, Priming, News Framing.

 

About the Authors

ByungGu Lee received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Journalism and Mass Communication. His research examines cognitive effects of mediated messages in the contexts of political and health communication.

Douglas M. McLeod is the Evjue Centennial Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication. His research develops three lines of inquiry: 1) social conflicts and the mass media; 2) media framing effects, and 3) public opinion. He focuses on the role of the media in both domestic and international conflicts, news coverage of social protest and its effects on audiences. McLeod has published more than 100 journal articles, book chapters, and law reviews. He recently published News Framing and National Security: Covering Big Brother examines how news framing of domestic surveillance influences audience assessments of issues related to national security and civil liberties.

INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP COMMUNICATION                                                                                                

Title & Authors

What the differences in conflict between online and face-to-face work groups mean for hybrid groups: A state-of-the-art review

Jessica Kahlow (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA)

Hanna Klecka (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA)

Erin Ruppel (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA)

Highlights

 

• State of the art at November 2019.

Most groups use a combination of face-to-face and online communication, making them hybrid.

Synthesizes 68 articles on conflict in face-to-face, hybrid, and online task groups and discusses what this means.

• Themes related to conflict in online groups include conflict management styles, decision-making, cultural differences, and trust.

• Group performance as an outcome variable persists across our themes, illustrating the importance of understanding conflict in hybrid groups.

• Future research should examine conflict in hybrid groups using computer-mediated communication perspectives.

 

Abstract

Conflict has been a topic widely studied in communication and management studies literature. How groups handle conflict can affect group performance, satisfaction, and commitment (Martínez-Moreno, González-Navarro, Zornoza, & Ripoll, 2009; Pazos, 2012; Staples & Webster, 2007; Workman, 2007). Much of this literature focuses on online, task-oriented work groups, and how these groups differ from face-to-face (F2F) groups. However, hybrid groups (i.e., those that work both F2F and online) are increasingly common. To better understand conflict in hybrid groups, we review 68 articles regarding online, hybrid, and F2F groups that highlight the differences between F2F and online groups and consider what these differences mean for hybrid groups. In doing so, we identify several emergent themes related to how conflict is managed in online and hybrid groups. The literature suggests that there are many benefits to online and hybrid groups, such as the ability to assemble more diverse teams and work asynchronously, but that conflict is also more common in online than F2F groups. Strong norms and leadership behaviors that encourage trust and cohesion appear to reduce conflict and its effects on group performance and decision making, especially in online groups. These findings suggest that in hybrid groups, F2F meetings might be used to quickly establish group norms, trust, and cohesion, which can then improve online group interactions. However, more research is needed to understand how conflict occurs and is managed in hybrid groups. Future communication research should focus on examining conflict management in hybrid groups using computer-mediated communication perspectives.

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What the differences in conflict between online and face-to-face work groups mean for hybrid groups: A state-of-the-art review

Jessica Kahlow (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA)

Hanna Klecka (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA)

Erin Ruppel (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA)

 

Keywords: Conflict; CMC; Online Groups; Hybrid Groups; Intergroup Communication; Organizational Communication; Review;

  Filesize 5 MB Download 189

 

 

Content

 

 

Introduction

Conceptualizing Online and Hybrid Groups

Conceptualizing Online Groups for Future Research.

Why Conflict Differs in Different Group Types

Literature Search

Synthesizing Hybrid Groups

Conflict Management Styles

Conflict management strategies.

Leadership styles.

Establish norms.

Decision Making

Conflict type.

Group formation.

Cultural Differences

Organizational culture.

Cultural diversity.

Trust

Emotion management.

Thematic Implications and Future Research

Conflict Management Implications

Leadership Implications

Decision Making Implications

Cultural Differences Implications

Trust Implications

Performance Outcomes

Disciplinary Implications and Future Directions for Communication Research

Conclusion

References

Appendix. Reviewed articles

Copyrights and Repositories

 

 

 

Keywords

Conflict, CMC, Online Groups, Hybrid Groups, Intergroup Communication, Organizational Communication, Review.

 

About the Authors

 

Jessica Kahlow is a Ph.D. fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA where her research focuses on technology in interpersonal communication and group contexts.

Hanna Klecka earned her M.A. at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA. Her research focuses on communication-related to small groups, social influence, technology, and gender roles.

Erin Ruppel is an Associate Professor of Communication at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA where she studies the intersections of communication technologies, interpersonal relationships, and health. 

 

INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP COMMUNICATION                                                                                                

Title & Authors

Death-Related Grief and Disenfranchised Identity: A Communication Approach

Kendyl A. Barney (University of Montana, USA

Stephen M. Yoshimura (University of Montana, USA)

Highlights

 

• The dominant narrative of grief asserts a script for the performance of grief that reinforces cultural norms into bereavement experiences.

• Grief is not merely a feeling, mental state, or passing event, but an evolving part of one’s identity that involves ongoing meaning reconstruction.

The dominant narrative disenfranchises grief experiences by assuming that grief is temporary and distal from one’s identity after significant loss.

• Doka’s (2002) theory of disenfranchised grief is extended to suggest that disenfranchisement occurs in degrees, rather than particular circumstances.

• Narrative methodology can illuminate aspects of grief identity in the context of a dominant narrative that might otherwise be invisible.

• Directions for future research include the features of cultural dimensions, language, and interactions that represent the dominant narrative and either increase or decrease disenfranchisement.

 

Abstract

The death of a significant person in one’s life forces individuals to engage in a number of grief-related tasks, including reconstructing a narrative about the relationship, resituating their relationship with the deceased individual, and developing a new sense of self post-loss. The dominant narrative of grief, however, generally always assumes that the experience is a finite, linear process of detachment. Given past research challenging the reality of that experience, we draw upon Doka’s (2002) theory of disenfranchised grief to propose that grief is not just a possible temporary state of disenfranchisement, but rather a perpetual state of disenfranchisement, mainly as a function of the social and personal binds that individuals find themselves in while navigating the lines between the dominant narrative of grief, and their own experience and performance of it. The communicative approach taken to the concept of grief in this review promotes several new avenues for research on grief.

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Death-Related Grief and Disenfranchised Identity: A Communication Approach

Kendyl A. Barney (University of Montana, USA)

Stephen M. Yoshimura (University of Montana, USA)

 

Keywords: Grief, Bereavement; Communication; Death and Dying; Identity; Narratives;;

 

  Filesize 308.79 KB Download 81

 

 

Content

 

Introduction

Definitions of Grief

Communicating Grief

Grief and Narrated Identity

The Post-Loss Identity

Disenfranchised Grief

Lack of Acknowledgement

The Nature of the Loss

The Griever’s Attributes

Evaluation of the Cause of Death

Grief as Disenfranchised Identity

The Role of Communication in Disenfranchised Grief Identity

Avoiding the topic

Displaying of over-sympathetic emotions

Instilling a social time limit for grief

Potential Directions for Future Research

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

 

  

Keywords

Grief, Bereavement, Communication, Death and dying, Identity, Narratives.

 

About the Author

Kendyl A. Barney (University of Montana)

Stephen M. Yoshimura (University of Montana)

 

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