Navigating a Diverse Paradigm: A Conceptual Framework for Experimental Framing Effects Research

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Douglas M. McLeod
Hyesun Choung
Min-Hsin Su
Sang-Jung Kim
Ran Tao
Jiawei Liu
ByungGu Lee


This review introduces a conceptual framework with three elements to highlight the richness of the framing effects literature, while providing structure to address its fragmented nature. Our first element identifies and discusses the Enduring Issues that confront framing effects researchers. Second, we introduce the Semantic Architecture Model (SAM), which builds on the premise that meaning can be framed at different textual units within a text, which can form the basis of frame manipulations in framing effects experiments. Third, we provide an Inventory of Framing Effects Research Components used in framing effects research illustrated with salient examples from the framing effects literature. By offering this conceptual framework, we make the case for revitalizing framing effects research.

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